Topic 3 Study Guide Review relevant parts of Chapter 2 Chapter 3, Sections 3 and 4 Chapter 4, Introduction and Sections 1 and 2Why were the English uninterested in Atlantic exploration in the first half of the 16th century? What crises did the English face in the mid 16th century? What was England’s relationship with Spain in the second half of the 16th century and how did it impact English affairs in the Atlantic world?England lacked the financial resources for such endeavors.[Book: 2.3 Challenges to Spain’s Supremacy, English Exploration]Because… Great prosperity based upon sheep, wool, & weaving – sold to European continent through Antwerp in the Netherlands – increasing conversion of farm land to pasture land – great economic capital invested in machinery & labor for woolen production [lecture: English Expansion]Queen Elizabeth’s main concern was blocking Spain’s efforts to eliminate Protestantism. England could not commit to a large-scale colonization in the Americas as long as Spain appeared ready to invade Ireland or Scotland.[Book: 2.3 Challenges to Spain’s Supremacy, English Exploration]Mid-century crisisReligious changes: English Reformation, creation of Church of England (Anglican)Demographic changes: English population finally begins rebound from Black Death (increases from 2.4m in 1520 to 2.8m in 1541) – Rise in life expectancy (32-34 years) – Decrease in age of marriage (good economy)Inflationary Cycle: profiteering – Spanish Silver – real wages fall – rents increase[lecture: English Expansion]Economic Collapse: Wool Market: 1551, glutted with raw cotton, market collapses – woolen exports fall by 35%Reaction: land owners begin to enclose land (will accelerate in 17thcentury) – merchants & financiers begin looking for other markets & trade routes for new investments – crown needs new sources of revenues[lecture: English Expansion]Elizabeth approved of English privateers, sea captains to whom the home government had given permission to raid the enemy at will.[Book: 2.3 Challenges to Spain’s Supremacy, English Exploration]
Sea Dogs (English privateers; pirates) become a drain on the Spanish treasury & disrupt Spanish Atlantic trade 1562 – England grants Sir John Hawkins royal support for his trans-Atlantic slave trading(which the Spaniards considered smuggling)1568 – Spanish navy sinks several ships in Hawkins fleet off Veracruz, Mexico1569 – England seizes several treasure ships on way to their army in the NetherlandsRelationships between England & Spain, & Elizabeth & brother-in-law, sourOn the verge of all out war[lecture: English Expansion]Undeclared Anglo-Spanish War1585 – 1604 period of undeclared war & intermittent conflict between Spain & England1585 – Sir Francis Drake sacks Santo Domingo, Cartagena & St. Augustine1585 – England sends an army to fight with the Dutch in the Netherlands1587 – Drake attacks Spanish fleet in Cadiz [lecture: English Expansion]1604 Peace treaty ends conflict – negotiated after the deaths of Philip (1598) and Elizabeth (1603)
You've reached the end of your free preview.
Want to read all 19 pages?
- Spring '08
- History, HIST 1311 Topic 3, Thirteen Colonies, Massachusetts, Massachusetts Bay Colony, Former British colonies