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Astro Review

Astro Review - Exam 3 general topics/concepts Chapter 5...

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Exam 3 general topics/concepts Chapter 5 – Light & Matter • Wave and particle (photon) nature of light Photon- mass-less particle of electromagnetic radiation energy, each photon has an energy proportional to its frequency Light as a wave- the shorter the wavelength, the more cycles pass per second Light interacting with matter 1. Emission – matter releases energy as light 2. Absorption – matter takes energy from light 3. Transmission – matter allows light to pass through it 4. Reflection – matter repels light in another direction • The electromagnetic spectrum -by studying this we can learn its composition, temperature, and velocity • Energy of a photon, E = h • Electron energy levels • 3 kinds of spectral emissions o Continuous (also called blackbody or thermal) spectrum, emission line spectrum, absorption line spectrum. • Thermal radiation laws: Kirchhoffs Laws • Wein’s Law o max • Inverse Square Law of Light (see text page 502) o Apparent Brightness • Spectrum from a planet o 2 humps – reflected sunlight (visible) + thermal radiation from planet (infrared) o Spectral signatures of lines (absorption and emission) tell us the composition of the gases in the atmosphere and materials on the surface of the planet • For this exam, you do not need to know anything about Section 5.5.
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Chapter 9 – Shaping Planetary Surfaces. • Anatomy of terrestrial planets – Core, Mantle, Crust (What is the Lithosphere?) All the terrestrial worlds have layered interiors. Core - (Nickel, iron) the highest density material, consiting primarily of metals such as nickel and iron, resides in the central core. Mantle- (Silicon, Oxygen) rocky material of moderate density mostly materials that contain silicon, oxygen, and other elements. Forms the thick mantle that surrounds the core. Crust- (granite, basalt) the lowest density rock, such as granite and basalt forms the thin crust essentially representing the worlds outer skin. Lithosphere- planets outer layer consists of relatively cool and rigid rock. Encompasses the crust and part of the mantle. A planet’s outer layer of cool, rigid rock is called the lithosphere, It “floats” on the warmer, softer rock that lies beneath
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Astro Review - Exam 3 general topics/concepts Chapter 5...

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