twopager - Tom Sherman Dr. Hinders Chapter Four Two-Pager...

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Tom Sherman Dr. Hinders Chapter Four Two-Pager Parapsychology is the study of psi and psi phenomena, which is comprised mainly of extrasensory perception (ESP), remote viewing, and psychokinesis. ESP is the ability to perceive that which is unable to be seen, such as a face-down playing card, the thoughts someone is thinking, or the capability to influence a coin flip or dice roll. This ability can supposedly be cultivated within one's self, so there is a potential that the majority of the worlds population could demonstrate any of the phenomena. Although there has been an exhaustive amount of data collected and experiments run testing ESP and psi phenomena, the scientific community at large is still greatly suspicious of the validity of psi and psi phenomena. Scientists point to flawed experimentation, the inability to replicate experimental psi results, and fraud as examples of the pseudoscientific nature of psi. However, proponents argue that parapsychology cannot be rebuked until every incident of psi phenomena has been discredited and debunked, which is both impossible and a nonfalsifiable ad hoc rescue. Extrasensory perception has been discredited through its origins in spiritualism, erroneous testing, disparate results from replicated experiments and cheating. Originally founded from the spiritualism movement, ESP struggled to gain any noteriety, but failed because of its connections with the pseudoscientific spiritualists. The first evidence for ESP was inspired by and seen at spiritualist events. The believers of extrasensory perception were ignorant to the tricks and sleight of hand that spiritualists use because they were not trained in the art of magic. After Harry Houdini began going across the country disproving sham spiritualists, people disregarded ESP and psi phenomena due to the fraudulent nature of spiritualism. However, this omission would be short lived, as the art of extrasensory perception increased in acceptance throughout scientific laboratories. In the 1930's, though, ESP gained popularity in laboratories that studied the
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This note was uploaded on 04/29/2008 for the course FRESHMAN S 150W taught by Professor Hinders during the Spring '08 term at William & Mary.

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twopager - Tom Sherman Dr. Hinders Chapter Four Two-Pager...

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