Ch20.2 - Review Carbohydrate biosynthesis overview: More...

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Review
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Figure 14-15 Carbohydrate biosynthesis overview: More reduced - carbon compounds
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20-1 Assimilation of CO 2 to make carbs in plants :
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20-4 CO 2 Assimilation in 3 stages:
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2 steps catalyzed by: •3-phosphoglycerate kinase •Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase Figure 20-9 Stage 2:
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Stage 3: Regeneration of Ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate from triose phosphates 20-10 3-phosphoglycerate CO 2 1,3 BPG For continuous flow of CO 2 into carbohydrate, ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate must be regenerated. starch/sucrose
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Regulation of carbon assimilation in plants: When photosynthetic reactions are active: stromal pH -- stromal [Mg 2+ ] -- Both conditions promote fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase and Rubisco activity. Figure 20-17/18 (regulation by light)
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Regulation of Calvin Cycle enzymes by reduction of disulfide bonds: Light-driven redox chain activates: •ribulose 5-phosphate kinase •fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase •sedoheptulose 1,7-bisphosphatase •glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase Figure 20-19
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Chapter 20 •Photorespiration, C 4 and CAM pathways •Synthesis of Starch and Sucrose •Synthesis of Cell Wall Polysaccharides •Integration of Carb Metabolism in Plants
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Photorespiration -- A side reaction of carbon assimilation with no benefit to the plant. Molecular oxygen (O 2 ) competes with CO 2 at the Rubisco active site. As temperature , O 2 :CO 2 ratio and Rubisco affinity for CO 2 This means trouble! Figure 20-20 Rubisco is not just a carboxylase, but also an oxygenase.
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The glycolate pathway (salvage of phosphoglycolate): peroxisome
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The glycolate pathway (salvage of phosphoglycolate): transamination
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The glycolate pathway (salvage of phosphoglycolate): Figure 20-21
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Glycine decarboxylase system Figure 20-22 + glycine serine + THF SHMT
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The costly fix (salvage of phosphoglycolate): Figure 20-21 -Oxygen is consumed and CO 2 is released (i.e. photorespiration), but no energy is generated -R15BP consumed and no CO 2 fixed -ATP and NADH are both consumed to convert 2PG to 3PG Why is this considered an costly fix?
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Ch20.2 - Review Carbohydrate biosynthesis overview: More...

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