lect_3oct1f08 - Outline 3 1-OCT-2008 1 Review Sig Figs 2...

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1 Outline 3 1-OCT-2008 1. Review Sig Figs 2. Atomic Theory Background (Mass Laws),Dalton 3. Atomic Structure Electrons, Nuclei, protons, neutrons (Thompson, Milliken, Rutherford, Chadwick) 4. Nuclear Structure - A Z X, nuclides, isotopes, Symbols (X), atomic number (Z), mass number (A) SKILL: Write and interpret nuclide symbols
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2 REVIEW: Sig Figs Refer to Rules in Previous Lecture 1. How many sig figs in a. 0.0500? (scientific notation?) b. 13000 (scientific notation?) c. 6030. (scientific notation?) 2. Give results in proper # of sig figs a. 1.2*6.000= b. 6.000-1.2 = 3. Round to 4 sig figs. 231.554
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3 Matter: Atomic Overview Substances- 1. Element - matter consisting of one kind of atom . Fixed composition. 2. Compound - matter consisting of two or more different kinds of atoms (elements). Fixed composition. Mixture – Group of two or more substances that are physically intermingled. Variable composition.
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4 Background For Atomic Theory Law of Conservation of Mass Total mass of substances does not change during a chemical reaction. Ex: mass oxygen + mass mercury = mass mercury(II) oxide 16 g oxygen + 201 g mercury = 217 g mercury(II) oxide Suggests: Matter cannot be created or destroyed.
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5 Background For Atomic Theory Law of Definite Proportion (composition) A compound contains the same elements in the same fractions by mass regardless of source. Ex: mercury(II) oxide has (from slide 4) 16.0 g O /217 g = 0.0737 g O/1.00 g compound. 201 g Hg/ 217 g = 0.926 g Hg/1.00 g compound. or 16.0 g O /201g Hg = 0.0796 g O/1.00 g Hg. Suggests: Atoms combine in definite proportions (ratios, fractions).
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6 Background For Atomic Theory Law of Multiple Proportions When same elements form two or more compounds, fractions are in ratios of small whole numbers.
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