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HIST 213 FINAL EXAM REVIEW How did Richard II’s reign end, and how did he die? (1377-1399) background: Edward III dies, the crown should have passed to his son, Edward the Black Prince, but the Black Prince was killed in battle; Edward III had two younger sons, but the rules of primogeniture prevented either of them from succeeding; instead the crown passed to Richard II, the Black Prince’s son, who had the hereditary right as the eldest son of Edward III’s eldest son; he was an intelligent, sensitive king, but his reign was marred by extravagance, love of personal luxury, and inability to hold together the disparate elements of noble factions and ordinary people . Although Rick handled the peasant uprising of 1381 well, he disputed heavily with Parliament…Rick started banishing and/or executing noblemen, then in 1387 a group of noblemen called the Lords Appellant brought charges of treason against the king’s friends; Rick retaliated by using Parliament as a forum for bringing charges against his enemies; Rick them became interested in Ireland, left his friend Roger Mortimer behind as acting Lieutenant over the Irish, but then he was killed, so Rick went back to Ireland and when he was gone, Henry Duke of Lancaster returned from exile and was determined to unseat the unpopular king; When Rick returned to England he found the English govt. already in the hands of Henry; Rick had no choice but to abdicate, Parliament listed their reasons for his deposition: misuse of Parliament, he had broken the coronation oath, set aside the laws, terrorized the judges; he was made prisoner at Pontefract Castle in Yorkshire; The Revolution of 1399, as these events came to be known, marked the end of the Angevin or Plantagenet period in English History. He’s undone by Ireland. What were the chief causes of the War of the Roses? (1455-1485) Henry VI’s opponents, the Yorkists vs. the Lancastrians; Chief causes: most obvious was the breakdown of the govt., social conditions contributed to the drift toward anarchy; feudal magnates had been employing bands of followers or “retainers”; Through retaining many wealthy Englishmen came to have what were essentially private armies; if these nobles chose to make war with the king by employing their armies, civil war was a likely result; towards the end of the Hundred Years’ War, a number of fighting men came back to England and attacked themselves to noble households. Both the Lancastrians and the Yorkists could trace their ancestry back to Edward III; the Yorkists thought the Lancastrians were usurpers who had illegally seized the crown during the Revolution of 1399 and said that their genealogical claims took precedence over their claims; most of the engagements were small skirmishes, many of those who fought were mercenaries; **you don’t have a nation at war with itself, you have two factions fighting it out using professional armies**
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Who were the Lollards? They were followers of John Wycliffe, the term originally means “babblers”, followers were
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