Prelim 1_StudyGuide

Prelim 1_StudyGuide - I. II. Biological contamination a....

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I. Biological contamination a. Seafood Toxins (mostly avoided with purchasing and storing) i. Ciguatera poisoning -in predatory tropical reef fish (amberjack, barracuda, grouper, snapper) who ate algae containing the toxin -cannot be smelled or tasted -not destroyed by cooking, so only buy from approved suppliers -symptoms: vomiting, itching, nausea, dizziness, hot and cold flashes, temporary blindness, hallucinations -weeks or months of recovery ii. Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) -may lead to respiratory failure and even death -mussels, clams, cockles, scallops -may not be destroyed with cooking iii. Scombroid poisoning/histamine poisoning -tuna, mackerel, bluefish, skipjack, bonito -from time-temperature abuse -bacteria produce the toxin histamine (odorless, tasteless) -symptoms: sweating, peppery mouth-taste, dizziness, nausea, headache -not destroyed by cooking or freezing, so buy from reputable suppliers iv. Systemic toxins: occur naturally in the fish -pufferfish, moray eels, and freshwater minnows contain tetrodoxin in liver, skin, and organs -leads to quick death -handle and prepare by trained chefs v. Fresh fish should be 41 or lower upon arrival, and thawed at 41 or lower b. Plant Toxins -toxins that are a natural part of some plants -fava beans, rhubarb leaves, jimsonweed, water hemlock -honey from bees that have gathered nectar from mountain laurels -milk from cows that ate snakeroot or other toxic plants -avoid these plants and species that may have eaten them c. Fungal Toxins -toxins that are a natural part of some varieties of fungi -do not use wild mushrooms, only those bought from approved suppliers II. Chemical Contamination a. Toxic Metals -from utensils/equipment containing lead, copper, brass, zinc, antimony, cadmium -especially in high acid foods that cause metal ions to leach into its liquids -carbonated beverages which might leach copper ions from water-supply lines -To prevent: -use food-grade storage containers -use metal and plastic containers for their intended use -use food-grade brushes -do not use enamelware, which may chip and expose metal underneath -do not use equipment that contains lead or zinc
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b. Chemicals -from cleansing products, polishes, lubricants, and sanitizers
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This test prep was uploaded on 02/19/2009 for the course H ADM 236 taught by Professor To'connor during the Spring '05 term at Cornell.

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Prelim 1_StudyGuide - I. II. Biological contamination a....

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