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HA275 Prelim II_StudyGuide

HA275 Prelim II_StudyGuide - HA275 Information Systems...

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HA275 Information Systems Prelim II Information integration Information Integration Trend Streamlined: Reduced redundancy/data entry Accurate: Increased reliability of data Timely Relevant Secure - Increased data control Shareable across the enterprise How to integrate? 1. Stepwise approaches Not always realistic to turn off legacy applications Apps are crucial for daily operations Apps are better than what you can buy ‘Big bang’ implementation = high risk strategy Point-to-point o Custom software interfaces Pairs of applications Good for low budgets, easy o Drawbacks Data extraction is slower Exponentially complex Build or buy? Complex to install Maintenance problematic Enterprise Application Integration (EAI) – more efficient than P2P! o (EAI) – or middleware (software) Single software hub Acts as a bridge (switch) Potentially less expensive than P2P o Drawbacks Data mapping Island risk Build or buy? Cooperating packages?
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Proprietary SW interfaces 2. Complete replacement of isolated systems Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) – Software (IT) o Integrates all functions in a single package ‘Off-the-shelf’ and tailored by an organization Data shared through a common repository o Can be purchased in modules that address only specific functional needs Best of Breed Middleware Why do we want ERP? o Single integrated infrastructure o Streamlined organizational activities o Facilitates confidence in information o Timely and informed decision making o Generic modules based on industry/functional best practices o Enables Business process reengineering (BPR) o Maintenance outsourcing What are the challenges of ERP? o Whole-house implementation o Inflexible compared to in-house IS o Long and expensive implementations o 2/3 failure – ROI, budget, time, functionality o Complex changes Software is designed with a powerful agenda …to workforce expertise, business processes, and organizational structures Outsourcing Outsourcing = hiring an outside organization to perform services (such as information processing and applications development) Example: McDonalds subcontracts with North Dakota call center
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