Class_4 (2)_Presentation - Managing Teams &...

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Unformatted text preview: Managing Teams & Creativity Managing Teams & Creativity Elements of creativity Elements of creativity 1. 2. 3. Expertise Creative thinking Motivation • How to support each as a project team • manager? Which one is the easiest to influence? How to support, create expertise? How to support, create expertise? Supporting creative thinking Supporting creative thinking • Allow disagreement/departure from status quo • Seek/possess diverse knowledge from disparate sources • • Perseverance Incubation – “Network of possible wanderings” Creative thinking in a group: Creative thinking in a group: Brainstorming 1. Generate lots of ideas on a specific issue 2. Determine which idea is the best Works best if • Groups of 8­12 • Relaxed environment – free to joke around • Facilitator guides the session, encourages participation, writes ideas down • People from different backgrounds Step by step Step by step 1. 2. 3. 4. Define issue or challenge Define time limit (25 min?) Shout out solutions – absolutely no criticizing. Laughing is ok. When time is up, agree on the best 5: 1. Write down criteria for judging which idea best solves the problem. 2. Give each of the 5 ideas a score 0­5 on each of the criteria. Add up the scores. The winner is… Creativity is… Creativity is… “1% inspiration, 99% perspiration” perseverance, incubation, MOTIVATION Motivation Motivation Extrinsic vs. intrinsic Sources of intrinsic motivation Sources of • Proper challenge/stretch • Encouragement, recognition • Freedom – Job matching – Clear goals freedom to choose approach – “Enough” time and money – Supportive & diverse – Both success & failure! – Results from my recent study of business services: firms with non­monetary incentive systems were more innovative than those with financial or no explicit incentives – Information sharing instead of politicking • Resources • Teams • Organizational support Howard Morgan (venture capitalist and director at Howard Morgan (venture capitalist and director at Idealab; formerly prof of decision sciences at Wharton, HBS, CalTech) Nokia at a crossroads Nokia at a crossroads • Incredibly successful in mobile devices • A leader in wireless networks • Faced with the “Innovator’s Dilemma” – 40% market share; one of the very few profitable manufactures – Next generation of technologies are extremely complex and contested – Convergence of computing & communications – Online + mobile services = “mobile internet” OVI ( Dear Aija Leiponen, • Photo management (cf Shutterfly) • Games • Maps (coming attractions: location­based • Music (subscription service; music store) services) Mode Learning/ Knowledge management Create/ Invent Innovate Process Setting objectives Networking Decision making Motivation Recognition Support Nokia innovation process: Nokia innovation process: (Re)defining success and failure? High Technology risk 1. Learning 2. New capabilities 3. Qualitative measures 1. New capabilities 2. Real options 3. Learning ”ROI 2” Low 1. ROI; contribution to sales 2. New capabilities 3. Learning Low High Commercial risk Key questions for Nokia Key questions for Nokia 1. Innovation basics • HOW TO MAKE SURE WE LEARN FROM MISTAKES/FAILURES? • “Developer’s Dilemma:” HOW TO BE FAST AND SMART, BUT NOT BUSY? Cf. Google 2. Communication, cooperation across boundaries • HOW TO ENABLE BOTTOM­UP CROSS­UNIT COOPERATION, AD HOC • NETWORKING? HOW TO DISSEMINATE THE CULTURAL KNOWLEDGE FROM LOCAL UNITS? 3. Risk taking and motivation • WHAT KINDS OF (PERSONAL) RISKS SHOULD PEOPLE TAKE? • HOW TO BALANCE INCENTIVES FOR AMBITIOUS PROJECTS AND • “BUSYWORK”? HOW TO RECOGNIZE INNOVATION ACHIEVEMENTS? 4. Organizational support, mechanisms for innovation • INNOVATION PROMOTERS/BLACKBELTS/GUARDIAN ANGELS? • IDEA MARKETS? • “HOT”/”RAT”/AD HOC TEAMS? • AGILE DECISIONMAKING? • SERVICE INNOVATION ORGANIZED AND SUPPORTED DIFFERENTLY? Teams Teams • • • • Shared excitement over the goal Willingness to help members through setbacks Respect the unique perspective of others Diverse backgrounds – – – • Trust Help make new, unforeseen combinations Tap different sources of external information May be difficult to find common ground, language need time to learn to work together Trust = accept vulnerability Trust = accept vulnerability • A person trusts when s/he believes that “the group makes a good­faith effort to behave in accordance with any commitments both explicit or implicit; is honest in whatever negotiations preceded such commitments; and does not take excessive advantage of another even when the opportunity is available” Cooperation, help Tolerance/give­and­take for variation in behavior Communication Research on virtual teams Research on virtual teams (Jarvenpaa & Leidner, Org. Sci. 1999) Early trust creation Communication • Social communication behaviors • Communication of enthusiasm Trust maintenance • Predictable Member actions •Coping with tech. communication • Substantial & timely responses uncertainty •Individual initiative •Transition from social to procedural to task focus •Positive leadership •Phlegmatic response to crises IDEO design process IDEO design process “Design black belts” 1. Observation 2. Brainstorming 3. Rapid prototyping 4. Refining 5. Implementation Lessons from Tom Kelley/IDEO Lessons from Tom Kelley/IDEO The Art of Innovation (2003) BARRIERS BRIDGES • Hierarchy based: “Forcing • Merit­based: “If you truly ideas to start at the top or rigidly follow a vertical path through an organization weighs down new projects” time, you’ll just try fewer new things.” embrace ideas from any source and people will toss their ideas into the ring.” • Bureaucracy: “If you have to • Autonomy: “If you’re the master fill out a form or consult with a lawyer every of your own destiny, you’ll have the self­ • Anonymous: “Nobody seems • Familiar: “If you feel like friends to notice or care. Don’t rock the boat, play it and family, someone will understand an • Clean: “If you keep laying down restrictions, you shouldn’t be surprised been done that way.’” safe and you’ll progress.” when the project team has trouble thinking outside the box.” confidence to take risks.” • Messy: “New York City is a great metaphor for stimulating messiness. A themselves; ignore the status quo. occasional misstep.Ä • Experts: “Experts can inadvertently • Tinkerers: “Always tweaking with block an innovation by saying ‘It’s never things and ideas; improve their work and jumble of cultures, ideas and experiences that spawns great energy and creativity.Ä ...
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