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Party System IFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaUnited States presidential election results between 1796 and 1820. Blue colors indicate that the state favored the Democratic-Republican Party, while yellow/brown colors indicate that the state favored the Federalist Party.The First Party Systemis a model of American politics used in history and political science to periodize the political party system existing in the United Statesbetween roughly 1792 and 1824.Itfeatured two national parties competing for control of the presidency, Congress, and the states: the Federalist Party, created largely by Alexander Hamilton, and the rival Jeffersonian Democratic-Republican Partyformed by Thomas Jeffersonand James Madisonand usually called at the time the "Republican Party." The Federalists were dominant until 1800, while the Republicans were dominant after 1800.In an analysis of the contemporary party system, Jefferson wrote on February 12, 1798:
Two political Sects have arisen within the U. S. the one believing that the executive is the branch of our government which the most needs support; the other that like the analogous branch in the English Government, it is already too strong for the republican parts of the Constitution; and therefore in equivocal cases they incline to the legislative powers: the former of these are called federalists, sometimes aristocrats or monocrats, and sometimes Tories, after the corresponding sect in the English Government of exactly the same definition: the latter are stiled republicans,Whigs, jacobins, anarchists, dis-organizers, etc. these terms are in familiar use with most persons."Both parties originated in national politics, but soon expanded their efforts to gain supporters and voters in every state. The Federalists appealed to the business community, the Republicans to the planters and farmers. By 1796 politics in every state was nearly monopolized by the two parties, withparty newspapers and caucuses becoming especially effective tools to mobilize voters.The Federalists promoted the financial system of Treasury Secretary Hamilton, which emphasized federal assumption of state debts, a tariff to pay off those debts, a national bank to facilitate financing, and encouragement of banking and manufacturing. The Republicans, based in the plantation South, opposed a strong executive power, were hostile to a standing army and navy, demanded a strict reading of the Constitutional powers of the federal government, and strongly opposed the Hamilton financial program. Perhaps even more important was foreign policy, where theFederalists favored Britain because of its political stability and its close ties to American trade, while the Republicans admired the French and the French Revolution. Jefferson was especially fearful thatBritish aristocratic influences would underminerepublicanism. Britain and France were at war from 1793–1815, with only one brief interruption. American policy was neutrality, with the federalists hostile to France, and the Republicans hostile to Britain. The Jay Treaty