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Religion 201 Final Study Guide

Religion 201 Final Study Guide - Religion 201 Final Study...

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Religion 201 Final Study Guide Short Answer 1. Luther believed that priest should not mediate between individual and God. Movement towards priesthood of all believers in Protestantism. No hierarchy in religion, and the bible was the sole authority. 2. “Cujus region, ejus religio” is a phrase in Latin that means "Whose rule, his religion". In other words, the religion of the king or other ruler would be the religion of the people. It is actually very historically effective, for example the case of Emperor Constantine who made Christianity the official religion of the Roman Empire. (5 million Christians in 300 c.e. and 50 years later, 150 million Christians) 3. Fought between 1618 and 1648, in what is now modern-day Germany and involved most major European powers although it was originally a conflict between Protestants and Catholics 4. Hatred and persecution of Jews throughout history, and rampant anti-semitism in the 19 th century. Also the Dreyfus Affair in France. 5. Sacrament – a Christian rite that is believed to have been means of divine grace or to be a sign or symbol of a spiritual reality. The seven sacraments are: 1) Baptism – washes away original sin 2) Confirmation – gift of holy spirit by anointing; child at age of reason makes decision to confirm the parent’s vows to follow Christ 3) Eucharist – celebration of Christ’s redemptive sacrifice 4) Confession – Catholic members expected confess sins to priest 5) Holy orders – initiation into the clergy, performed by bishops 6) Marriage – union between man and woman, only after 10 th century forbidden to priests 7) Anointing of the sick – sacrament of the last rites, anointing sick with oil, saved for those in grave danger 6. The five pillars of Islam are 1) Shahadah – the testimony of faith 2) Salat – ritual prayer 3) Zakat – Obligatory religious almsgiving 4) Siyam – fasting 5) Hajj – the pilgrimage to mecca 7. Ethical monotheism is a set standard of what is good and what is evil for all time/ all places; monotheistic religions invent or create the idea that there can be only one standard, one system of good and evil just as there is one God, one revealed truth, one standard of good and evil. 8. It continues to grow. Is symbolically connected to the Jewish community. 9. One to whom the commandments apply. 10. Ten commandments are: 1) Do not worship any other gods 2) Do not worship false idols 3) Do not take the lord’s name in vain
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4) Keep the Sabbath holy 5) Honor your father and mother 6) Do not commit murder 7) Do not commit adultery 8) Do not steal 9) Do not lie 10) Do not covet 11. N/A 12. In 313 c.e. Constantine calls for toleration of Christianity in Empire; less tolerant spirit towards Jews ensues. 13. Council called in 325 to settle the Arian controversy (Arians believed that Jesus is or was a "created being"). It produced the Nicean Creed.
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