Ocean_102_Exam_5_prep - ATLANTIC COD: Natural history Once...

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ATLANTIC COD: Natural history– Once this was the world’s largest and most productive fishery It existed on both sides of the N. Atlantic Provided one of the major food sources for the pilgrims A key economic factor in early America especially in Massachusetts Seen to represent American opportunity - boundless However, due to overfishing it is now commercially extinct Ecological attributes of Atlantic Cod— Generalists they are omnivores but are not picky This makes them very adaptable They are fine in a variety of conditions They are not large, fast or fragile making them easy to catch Broad prey spectrum Both pelagic and benthic Mass migratory behavior and spawning aggregations This shows their behavioral plasticity and ability to adapt to environment They have very high fecundity Long life spans around 25 years Become reproductive between 3 and 6 years of age Georgia’s bank has lots of plankton because of the mixing of warm and cold water Permanent eddies that flow clockwise around the edge of the canyon Also true in the Gulf of Maine (counter-clockwise) This allows the cod to move in shore in warm water below cold Labrador current Also provides a relatively sheltered body of water for juvenile cod The circular flow keeps cod eggs and larvae in shallow protected water as they mature History of fishing gear technology and fish processing— Important introduction of catch-processors enabled 3x the cod catch of any previous year in 1968 Replaced old handline and longline practices Also more efficient than boats only equipped with nets and baskets Earlier advances included drift nets, gill nets and bottom trawls Steam power revolutionized fishing allowed ‘daughter boats’ and more fisherman father off shore for longer periods of time Much fishing done by foreign vessels Technological changes involved in decline of fisheries— By the mid-1970s the catch weight had significantly dropped Due to continued advances such as introduction of sonar, satellites and GPS Made fish easier to catch and more efficient practices Trawling destroyed bottom habitats as well as having lots of by-catch Drift nets and gill nets also contributed to decline because of the increased magnitude of impact Advents in preservation of catch such freezing of fillets made fishing even easier Most important was the catcher-processor, huge increase in productivity Declared EEZ’s out 200 miles Foreign fishermen must have permits Resulted in greater control over catch This was a response to economic incentives of domestic industry Expected the windfall to go to domestic interests So they subsidized fishing industry Resulted in increased fishing pressure from domestic industry Eventually domestic just replaced and outstripped former international fishing Provisions of Magnuson Act 1976— Established EEZ’s out 200 nautical miles Established low interest loans for US fisherman to build fleets
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Ocean_102_Exam_5_prep - ATLANTIC COD: Natural history Once...

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