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Soc study Qs week 5_StudyGuide

Soc study Qs week 5_StudyGuide - Soc 2208/DSoc 2090 Study...

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Soc 2208/DSoc 2090 Study Questions, Week 5 / Lectures 7 & 8 Context: Inequality space What do these people look like How are groups of individuals arranged within the space How do you get around these spaces? What kinds of mobility are there? Mechanism… 1. Nearly 175 years ago, Alexis de Tocqueville wrote that the US is an open society in which children who have known “the sting of want” have a good chance of moving up the class structure, while those born into more privileged classes face a risk of moving downward. Since then, the image of the US as a “land of opportunity” has become part of the American psyche. Describe current patterns of social mobility in the United States. To what extent is your description consistent with de Tocqueville’s claim that there is much social mobility in the US? Basic Definitions: - Social mobility: movement from one social position to another - Inheritance is the opposite of social mobility - Intergenerational Mobility: the parent’s class versus the child’s class as an adult, the type of mobility de Tocqueville speaks about. o What are the chances that children are going to be able to move around - Intragenerational Mobility: career mobility - Absolute Mobility: Percentage of kids who move from their parent’s class a. What opportunities are available to kids with X background? b. Total Absolute Mobility in U.S.: 60.1% i. Upward mobility: 37.3% ii. Downward mobility: 22. 8% c. Inheritance: 39.9% d. Is there much inheritance in the higher classes? i. 48.4% of upper non-manual workers become upper non-manual workers, which means that over 50% did not inherit their class position Not looking at mobility of one group relative to another Looking at total mobility within a society - Relative Mobility: What is the advantage of being in class X versus being in class Y? Measured by odds ratios o Inheritance effect
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o The relative likelihood of someone in class A moving to class B relative to the likelihood of someone in class B moving to class A Measures the degree of social fluidity and the openness Measures relative advantages and disadvantages of birth Measures whether opportunities chances are equal across different backgrounds 4 basic figures of modern mobility (for men) o Massive Inheritance at Extremes (i.e. for farm workers and upper non- manual workers) Kids born into the upper non-manual class are nearly 10 times more likely to be in the upper non-manual class than those born into the lower non-manual (odds ratio for UNM/LNM is about 9.6%) o Not much inheritance at the middle o Symmetry: odds of downward mobility are similar to the odds of upward mobility o Strong barrier between manual and non-manual workers Absolute vs. Relative mobility o Absolute mobility: there might be structural changes to a society that either create more opportunities or destroy them o Relative better to compare across countries because it gets rid of variation that might be due to the opportunity structure Notes from Review Session: Material that specifically refers to the U.S.
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Soc study Qs week 5_StudyGuide - Soc 2208/DSoc 2090 Study...

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