Final CB_Exam


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STUDY QUESTIONS Part 3 LEARNING –Five modes: Association, Classical Conditioning, Operant Conditioning, Modeling, and Reasoning. 1. What are operant and classical/respondent conditioning? How do they differ from one another? There are no explicit rewards in classical conditioning, only implied rewards usually based on feelings and emotions. Pavlov’s dogs didn’t eat the meat powder, they simply saw and smelled it. Operant conditioning, the one used by most marketers today, however, is based on specific rewards that lead to learning and subsequent responses. Operant conditioning consist of states of Drive, Cue, Response, and Reinforcement. Classical/ Respondent conditioning is also thought to occur outside of conscious awareness whereas Operant conditioning is though to be conscious. Lastly Classical/ Respondent behaviors are elicited by stimuli which occur prior to the response; Operants are conditioned by consequences which occur after the behavior. 2. What are positive and negative rewards? What are positive and negative punishments? Positive rewards are those rewards which cause consumers to adopt a sense of brand loyalty by continuing to buy their product where as Negative rewards would lead a consumer not to repurchase. The same goes for punishment. Examples can be seen in the perceived positive reward from eating candy and in the perceived positive punishment of using Listerine mouthwash (although it may hurt its helping). Products may punish by accident rather than by nature as well. If you were burned by coffee you may associate coffee with being unpleasant and negative regardless of how you feel it taste. 3. What are continuous, fixed and variable schedules of reinforcement? How do they differ in terms of speed of learning and extinction? Continuous, fixed, and variable schedules are all Reinforcement Schedules used to produce high rates of predictable behavior within consumers. When every occurrence of the behavior is reinforced, a continuous schedule is being employed. When every second, third, tenth, etc. response is reinforced, a fixed ratio schedule is being used. When the reinforcer follows a desired consequence on averaged increments the schedule is though to be a variable ratio schedule. Ratio schedules are of particular interest because they produce high rates of behavior which are reasonably resistant to extinction. Slot machines are good examples of this principal. 4. What conditions make for faster and stronger operant conditioning? The stronger your DRIVE for a particular stimulus the greater the influence of operant conditioning. When CUES are distinct from other brands this enables the consumer to distinguish one product from another increasing the strength of operant conditioning. It also keeps companies from promoting their industry rather than their brand. The easier it is to RESPOND the greater the consumption of a good as well.
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