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Exam 21)Discuss Emile Durkheim’s theory of human nature and his theory of progress (including his concepts of social pathology). How would Durkheim use these theories to explain the early history and current conditions of East St. Louis, Illinois?According to Durkheim, humans are passionate, social animlas who are unstable. We are insatiable in our wants and desires. Humans can not be pleased and therefore they are unstable. Instability of the white man in East St. Louis, once the railroad industry became a thing of the past, the white man leaves looking for cheaper labor and new industry. So, the white man’s insatiability leaves the poor and helpless black people to fend for themselves without a proper social structure in East St. Louis. Black people that migrated ot East St. Louis in promise of jobs get fucked. Promise of money for the black man becomes one of destitution. The white man leaves them with nothing. The white man left during the depression in search of more money. According to his theory of progress, societies naturally develop through a series of stages, each of which exhibit a different from of social solidarity (what holds a society together). Social solidarity is driven by an increase in dynamic density (rate of social interaction) which is brought on by population increase and contact between isolated societies resulting from improvements in transportation, communication. Because the black man can now communicate and transport themselves to East. St. Louis, they take advantage of this by taking the jobs there. They therefore cause dynamic density increasing the population. When the black people get the railroad jobs, they are living in mechanic solidarity. They have a common interest of getting the same jobs which leads to a collective conscience. Some sort of division of labor exists, leading to a collective conscience when these people share beliefs and moral attitudes. The more jobs being taken, the increase of communication and transportation leads to more black people wanting jobs, creating competition and specialization, ultimately leading to organic solidarity. This exists in more advanced societies which are based upon complementary differences and mutual dependencies associated with a complex division of labor. As society transitions from mechanical to organic, the transition from repressive to restitutive law occurs. Because not everyone has the same role in society, and because that led to a weakend collective consicience, repressive law disintegrates. Severe punishment becomes eliminated , and restitutive law occurs. Offenders more likely to be asked to comply with the law or repay those harmed. In East St. Louis, because society has organic solidarity, and thus restitutive law, the white people are able to get away with more abuse towards the blacks. Their punishments for their actions are non-existent. This ultimately leads to an all black society with no proper social structure because the white man was not held accountable for his actions.