236 review_StudyGuide

236 review_StudyGuide - 236 REVIEW SHEET TERMINOLOGY...

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236 REVIEW SHEET TERMINOLOGY Collagen: connective muscle, tissue, difference in meat (15%) and fish (3%), affects cooking considerations, will break down and turn into gelatin Myoglobin: pigments change when cooked, any color left is myoglobin Actinomyosin: muscle components of meat Myocommata: lines of collagen Myotomes: little particles Globular protein: helix structure, tightly coiled (ie ovamucin, ovalbumin in eggs) Fibrous protein: striated muscle, more elongated structure (ie actin, myosin, collagen) Conjugated protein: pigments, linked or bonded to other molecules- fats, minerals, other proteins (ie lipoproteins, phospholipoproteins, glycoprotein (gluten)p Saturated Fat: Primarily from animal products Unsaturated fat: most from plant sources, either mono or polysaturated, Foods high in monounsaturated fat include avocados, olives, and peanuts. Canola, olive, almond, hazelnut, and peanut oils are also high in this type of fat. Foods high in polyunsaturated fat include fatty fish, nuts and vegetable oils such as safflower and sunflower. Gelatinization: occurs when starches absorb water and swell, acids inhibit process, 3 effects: thicken soups and sauces, give structure to baked goods, softens vegetables Elastin: strong connective tissue Meat is primarily fibrous and conjugated proteins FOOD EVALUATION Hedonistic: pleasurable, subjective Non-hedonistic: want to use to evaluate, objective Classical evaluation: appearance, aroma, flavor, texture, temperature Other ways: Cultural expectations, economic value Ways to Evaluate: Cultural: What’s acceptable, specifics, colors/shapes, presentation, packaged, processed Food never eaten: unusual colors, childhood environment, foods of status/stigma (caviar), media brainwashing (yellow butter, wonderbread) political lobbies Visual/Appearance: Fresh, portion, color, shapes, sheen, turgid (filled with water) ripe, COLOR WILL POINT TO ANTICIPATION OF FLAVOR, Turbidity (cloudy/murky) Aroma/Flavor: 90% aroma, 10% flavor, garlicky, floral, fruity, minty, musky, fishy, grassy, putrid, pungent, rotten, burnt, sharp (acid), 4 classical flavors: sweet: -OH, amino acids, aldehydes (cinnamon), simple Carbs, enzymes in saliva convert polysaccharides to di or monosaccarides Sour: associated with H+ ions in acids Salty: Bitter: caffenine, theobromine, quinine, nicotine(alkaloids) Sweetness may be enhanced by salt
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*umami: glutamatic, mouth fell Fat: pure Volatile substance + spec. receptor=identification (brain) Detection threshold: detect, cant recognize Recognition threshold: detect and recognize *salt is only an enhancer not to be recognized Flavor enhancer: enhance each other (ie peanut butter and jelly) Taste blindness: recessive gene Effects on evaluation/assessment Personal health: sinuses/colds, poor oral hygiene, smoking, nutritional status of Body, taste blindness FOOD ALLERGIES AND FOOD INTOLERANCES Food Allergy: Protein molecules not affected by heat or digestive enzymes; cross into tissues and affects organs- takes minutes to 1 hr for reaction
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236 review_StudyGuide - 236 REVIEW SHEET TERMINOLOGY...

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