west lec oct 18

west lec oct 18 - October 18, 2007 I. one country helping...

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October 18, 2007 - one country helping another country with revolutions o Idea of constitutions - “repressive system” - Almost 33 years, all countries had revolutions except France - Could not maintain forever - Changes were coming. I. Metternich’s Europe (1815-1848) was undermined by 4 forces a. Liberalism: an ideology of the middle classes esp. the upper-middle classes; moderates i. Everyone is free to do everything. ii. Demand for a constitution, a restricted franchise, a free economy, free press iii. Not for everyone though. Freedom for the upper classes and middle. iv. France (to some extent), Holland v. Not all countries had been touched by liberalism b. Radical Democracy: an ideology of the petite bourgeoisie and the working classes i. First seen in Europe in 1793, during radical phase of the French Revolution 1. Only seen theoretically in France; never taken effect in France ii. Emphasis is on universal male suffrage iii. Many belonged to “petit bourgeoisie”: lower middle class. c. Socialism: an ideology of the working classes i. Began in the 1820s with planned communities of Saint Simon, Fourier, Owen ii. By 1840s, had developed into the call of things like a regulated economy, cooperative workshops, the elimination of unemployment through government work programs, the extension of the welfare initiatives. iii. Communism more extreme form of socialism 1. Not widely embraced by workers until later. d. Nationalism: an ideology in the early 19 th century i. Like socialism, a new ideology in the early 19 th century ii. Inseparably linked to liberal demands, at least in FIRST half of the 19 th century iii. Embraced by middle class scholars. 1. Wasn’t a popular grassroots movement at first iv. National autonomy, more for educated middle classes v. Emerged in France 1789: Constitutionalism and Nationalism closely linked in first half of 19 th century vi. Greece and Turks
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vii. Poland e. The economy was in a recession II. Outbreak of Revolution a. Started in France i. Which sparked all the other revolutions 1. Everywhere in Europe ii. Started as liberal movements and then the working class brought their own ideas. Then riots and protests started then the rulers just gave up. 1.
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west lec oct 18 - October 18, 2007 I. one country helping...

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