November 8 western civ

November 8 western civ - November 8, 2007 Western...

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November 8, 2007 Western Civilization I. Introduction a. Russia was an absolutist state until well into the 20 th century i. Autocratic government well into the 1900s ii. Only nation on the continent that didn’t have a constitution b. Serfdom lasted much longer in Russia than elsewhere in Europe i. Alexander II, in response to Russia’s defeat in the Crimean War, attempted to modernize his country by abolishing serfdom (1861) 1. Russias defeat of the war showed that they needed modernization in order to survive in the world ii. Alexander was the one who tried to modernize Russia iii. The Mure – peasants weren’t just given land, they had to buy the land and the money went straight to the landowners. iv. Did not necessarily work to the peasantry’s advantage: the best land remained in the hands of the nobility, while the peasants had to make due with scraps 1. Peasants now owning worse land than they had before. The landowners got the good land, and the peasantry got the scraps c. Growing unrest in Russia in the face of the tsar’s absolutism i. Decemberist revolt against nobility ii. Alexander II assassinated by anarchists (1881) 1. A bomb attack 2. “Group called Anarchists” a. Envisioned a land where there is no state/government. That the government destroyed the people. Anarchism much more powerful source than communism. iii. His son takes a hard line and clamped down Russia. 1. His lines fed the rebellion of the people. II. Revolution of 1905 a. Revolt triggered by Russia’s loss to Japan in the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-5 i. Humiliating defeat for Russia ii. Their huge navy lost to a tiny island. iii. New government was needed to steer Russia to a new place. b. On January 9, 1905, 100,000 workers march to the Winter Palace in St. Petersburg demanding a constitution and the recognition of labor unions. i. Led by priest and sang “God save the tsar: ii. Nicholas II’s troops fire into the crowd (Bloody Sunday) c. Bloody Sunday touches off widespread agitation: mutinies in the army and navy all through out Russia i. Nicholas II grants the people a parliament (Duma), but it possesses little legislative authority (still no responsible government)
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ii. They wanted more and pushed for a constitution. 1. They had a strike and paralyzed Russia a. He gave in and gave a constitution i. Still had veto, appoint half of parliaments people, and others. 2. A lot like the government that Bismarck had a. More like a concession to the revolutionaries i. No power to dismiss ministers. Ministers only responsible to the tsar. III.
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This note was uploaded on 04/28/2008 for the course HIST 3C taught by Professor Porter during the Fall '07 term at UCLA.

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November 8 western civ - November 8, 2007 Western...

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