November 13 western civ

November 13 western civ - November 13, 2007 Western...

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November 13, 2007 Western Civilization Rise of Fascism BACKGROUND - Fin de Siencles(?): Bourgeiose universe was under attack - with art and the sciences o Einstein o Picasso - Question the bourgeoisie’s faith and moral code - Liberalism was under attack - liberal philosophy – best society is that everyone has freedom to get his/her way – competition- what drove society onward - Best society is that everyone was competing with one another. o Communism was to turn away from bourgeoisie system Russian Revolution I. The Political Right a. New Radical Right movement – nationalism, imperialism, and anti- semitism. b. The Radical Right was instrumental for stirring the masses for WW1 c. Supports were reactionaries (rejected modernity) – collectivous vision – looked as much in the past as in the future d. 1890s – would in the few decades will turn into fascism in the 1930 and 40s. i. Germany, Italy, Spain, Romania ii. Not direct control but powerful – Austria, Hungary, France, and somewhat Britain e. Communism and Fascism were both against bourgeoisie society i. Both born because of the laissez faire economics and partliamentary politics. ii. Communism 1. Economics – not for the poor 2. Politics – sha iii. Fascism 1. Economics - Eroded social bonds and brought decandce 2. Politics – just talking jobs iv. Really two sides of the same coin v. Reshape the persons identity II. Word of Fascism a. Latin: Fasces i. Bundle of birch rods tided by ribbons with an axe attached to it ii. Magistrates by the roman empire 1. Strength through unity iii. Widely used symbol – even in America iv. Used by the right wing parties III. Characteristics of Fascist regims
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a. Dictatorships led by charistmatic leader i. This leader was greeted by masses as a saviour 1. Mussolini 2. Hitler ii. Compared to Napoleon and what he was able to get – the one who everyone can greet that all solutions are held by him b. Ultra-nationalist i. Very racist: first emerged with the radical right and the idea of anti-semitism ii. Racial theories 1. Social Darwinism a. Those who profit and succeed in society are biologically superior than other i. Later on to nations/countries iii. Nationalism of the fascists got a mystical quality 1. Cult of a nation – because like a second religion a. Pagan celebrations in countries like Germany 2. Secular Religion a. Wanted to tap in into the mythical roots – back to the time when Germany stood against the Romans: Germany before the invading countries i. German pagans c. Fascist ideology i. Very oppositional 1. What did they stand for? a. Stood against things i. Against communism, democracy, capitalism, Jews, just they were against things b. Against the modern world c. Rejections of the modern world ii. Sometimes doesn’t make any sense d. Came to Power i. Not only seized power through military coups ii. Also brought it through elections: democratically elected but threats of violence were sent into motion and intimidated people to
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November 13 western civ - November 13, 2007 Western...

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