5. The Structure and Function of Macromolecules

5. The Structure and Function of Macromolecules - Chapter...

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Chapter 5: The Structure and Function of Macromolecules 12/02/2008 10:29:00 Table of Contents 5.1- Most Macromolecules are Polymers, Built from Monomers 5.2 5.3 5.4 Figure 5.17 5.5 Figure 5.26
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Overview 12/02/2008 10:29:00 The 4 Main Classes of Large Biological Molecules Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids Macromolecule = Large/giant molecules
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5.1- Most Macromolecules are Polymers, Built from  Monomers 12/02/2008 10:29:00 Overview 3 of 4 classes of life’s organic compounds o Carbohydrates o Proteins o Nucleic acids o Are chain-like molecules Polymers Polymer o Long molecule consisting of many similar or identical building blocks  linked by covalent bonds Monomer o Small molecules o The repeating units/building blocks of a polymer Classes of polymers o Differ in nature of monomers o Chemical mechanisms by which cells make/break polymers are  basically the same in all cases Monomers are connected by a reaction in which two molecules are covalently  bonded to each other through loss of a water molecule Condensation rxn o Two molecules are covalently bonded to each other via loss of a water  molecule o A.k.a. Dehydration reaction
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Because water is lost When a bond is formed between two monomers, each monomer contributes  part of the water molecule that is lost o The OH -  and H + In making a polymer o This reaction is repeated as monomers are added to the chain 1 by 1 o The cell expends energy to carry out the dehydration rxns o The process only occurs with the help of enzymes Enzymes = specialized proteins that speed up chemical  reactions in cells Hydrolysis o How polymers are disassembled to monomers o Reverse of dehydration o “To break down with water” o H +  and OH -  of water attach to adjacent monomers o Ex: digestion The Diversity of Polymers Each cell has thousands of different kinds of macromolecules The diversity of macromolecules in the living world is vast o Possible variety is effectively limitless The basis of diversity in polymers o Arrangement Variation in the linear sequence Small molecules common to all organisms are ordered into unique  macromolecules
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5.2- Carbohydrates Serve as Fuel and Building Material 12/02/2008 10:29:00 Overview
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Carbohydrates o Incl. Sugars and polymers of sugars o Monosaccharides A.k.a. Single sugars Simplest carbohydrates o Disaccharides Double sugars Two monosaccharides joined by a condensation reaction o Polysaccharides Macromolecule carbohydrates Sugars Monosaccharides o A multiple of CH 2 O Glucose o C 6 H 12 O 6 o Most common monosaccharide o Aldose Fructose o Ketose
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5. The Structure and Function of Macromolecules - Chapter...

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