2. The Chemical Context of Life

2. The Chemical Context of Life - Chapter 2- The Chemical...

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Chapter 2- The Chemical Context of Life 12/02/2008 10:29:00 Table of Contents 2.1- Matter Consists of Chemical Elements in Pure Form and in Combinations called Compounds 2.2 2.3 2.4
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2.1 Matter Consists of Chemical Elements in Pure Form and in Combinations called Compounds 12/02/2008 10:29:00 Matter o Anything that takes up space o Has mass o Organisms are composed of matter o Exists in many diverse forms, each with its own characteristics Ex: rocks, metals, oils, gases, humans o Made up of elements Element o Substance that cannot be broken down to other substances by chemical reactions o 92 elements occur in nature o Each has a symbol derived from Latin or German names Compound o Substance consisting of 2(+) different elements combined in a fixed ratio o Ex: NaCl Has a 1:1 ratio of Na to Cl Essential Elements of Life 25 of 92 natural elements are essential to life o ex: Carbon, Oxygen, Hydrogen, Nitrogen Make up 96% of living matter o ex: Phosphorous, sulfur, calcium, potassium, some others The remaining 4% Trace elements o Required by an organism in only minute quantities o Ex: Fe
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2.2- An Element’s Properties Depend on the Structure 12/02/2008 10:29:00 Overview
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Each element consists of a certain kind of atom that is different from the atoms of any other element Atom o Smallest unit of matter than still retains the properties of an element Subatomic Particles Subatomic particles o Tiny bits of matter even smaller than atoms o 3 Kinds of particles that are stable (enough) Neutrons Protons Electrons Atomic Nucleus o Center of atom o Contains tightly packed neutrons and protons o Electrons surrounding nucleus move at almost the speed of light Form a cloud around nucleus o Electrically charged o Electron= negative charge o Proton= positive charge
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o Neutron= neutral o Give nucleus a positive charge o Provides attraction between the electrons outside nucleus Dalton o Unit of measurement o =Atomic mass unit o Ex: Electron mass is 1/2000 dalton, negligible
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This note was uploaded on 04/29/2008 for the course BISC 220L taught by Professor Herrera,mcclure during the Spring '07 term at USC.

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2. The Chemical Context of Life - Chapter 2- The Chemical...

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