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Psych134B - 7 January 2008 Video Starting at Square One...

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7 January 2008 Video: Starting at Square One Discovery Establishing environments where children can discover on their own Experience Give them the basis for growing for the rest of their lives Need ample opportunity to reflect on things Creative curriculum For self-esteem: different in special ways, unique in their own way (risk: very important) also important is a sense of belonging Self-awareness Cognitive Expressive The Plan The child is the curriculum Allow child to choose, trust children Art Music - Inclusion: how you include children, tapes and records don’t do this. Learn songs yourself and sing with children. - Never say anything to a child faster than their heartbeat, don’t give songs to teach. Writing Honors their words and what they say and think is important. Connection between written word and their actions. Stories 9 January 2008 Three-Five Year Olds Development: Physical, Language, Cognitive, Social-Emotional Steadier and slower Age of reasoning develops around age 7 Kindergarten classrooms should more closely resemble preschool classrooms than 1 st gr. 1 st grade: didactic teaching (one expert teaching to entire class and requires participation) Physical Development Between 3-5 years, brain grows 75%, by the end of 5 th year about 90%. Handedness well established Fully circular wrist motions (used for cursive and monkey bars still difficult (cartilage not completely formed) All baby teeth Vision: Farsighted (important to know for reading, can’t really see as well) Developing binocular vision More Adult like proportions Coordination and reaction times are still less developed or slower than those of a 6 or 7 Year old. Manual dexterity not fully developed
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What are some opportunities for strengthening hand muscles and fine-motor? (scissors, dough – kneading, beading, building blocks, art) Language Development Communication “scripts” Allow them to free up energy to focus on other things Private speech Used to announce completion of a task, then used while working on it, then used to plan or describe future actions. Tendency for preschoolers to think out loud or control their own behavior by talking to themselves 50 words per month Cognitive Development Piaget’s preoperational stage (2-7) Children are still egocentric; they confuse appearances with reality (hard to different fiction from reality – watch Jaws, afraid to shower or touch water) Symbolic function substage (2-4): Child gains ability to mentally represent an object that is not present Intuitive thought substage (4-7): Children begin to use primitive reasoning (learning to reason, common sense, early reason) Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory Role of language and social interaction in cognitive development (scaffold themselves through speech, then hopefully internalize their thoughts n speech) Information-Processing Theory: whatever output you get from world and what you know from world already… (teach what is important to child Social and Emotional Development “Real” friendships are formed
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