hist176bstudyguide - Part I - Terms 1. Nguyen Ai Quoc –...

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Part I - Terms 1. Nguyen Ai Quoc – (“Nguyen, the Patriot”) This was the name that was taken before he proclaimed himself Ho Chi Minh (“Bringer of Enlightenment”). In 1930, Ho founded the Indochina Communist Party (ICP) after studying Marxism-Leninism in Europe and becoming a part of the French Socialist Party in the 1920s. He believed that Socialism and Communism would be able to liberate the oppressed nations because Lenin had declared imperialism as an evil fabrication of capitalism. After the defeat of Japan, Ho declared Vietnam an independent nation on September 2, 1945. Ho was a nationalist and although he was inspired by Communism, he had not yet became one himself. He wrote to U.S. President Truman for protection from France and recognition of Vietnam as an independent nation, but Truman never replied. Instead, the U.S. funded France in an 8 year war effort to retake Vietnam as a colony that failed. At the end of the First Indochina War in 1954, Ho Chi Minh was named president of Northern Vietnam, the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV) and led his people to a victory against the U.S. in an attempt to occupy the country during the Vietnam War. 2. Henry Kissinger – The German Harvard professor who was appointed as national security adviser for President Nixon and was then appointed to be Secretary of State. He advised Nixon on a plan coined, “Vietnamization,” where the U.S. would gradually withdraw their troops from South Vietnam and replace them with more members of the Southern Vietnamese Army while continuing to bomb the North. Nixon and Kissinger were also involved in a secret plan to bomb bordering countries of Cambodia and Laos during the Vietnam War that was not approved by Congress and unknown to military commanders. Over 200,000 tons was dropped onto Cambodia alone. In 1975, President Ford and Kissinger visited Jakarta the day before the Indonesian invasion of East Timor to talk with General Suharto. Although, they denied that East Timor was a part of the conversation, the uncensored documents of the conversation that were released reveal that East Timor was an important element in the talk. General Suharto asked the President and Kissinger not to make the invasion a U.S. issue and the two told him that it would not be one and Kissinger said “to do what he had to do quickly.” They gave him the green light for the invasion. Henry Kissinger is a prime example of Southeast Asian history being shaped by foreign influences. If the U.S. did not bomb Cambodia, would the Khmer Rouge have gained power? If the U.S. stopped Suharto, could East Timor have attained independence earlier? All of these actions could have possibly saved thousands of lives. 3.
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This note was uploaded on 04/29/2008 for the course HIST 176B taught by Professor Robinson during the Spring '07 term at UCLA.

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hist176bstudyguide - Part I - Terms 1. Nguyen Ai Quoc –...

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