geog124studyguid1exam1

geog124studyguid1exam1 - Geography is the study of the...

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Unformatted text preview: Geography is the study of the spatial organization of human activity and people’s relationships with their environments Knowledge is at the intersection of what we know to be true and what we believe to be true Power and Money: World is organized into 3 distinct regions as a result of industrial revolution and ongoing economic and political relationships – Core: dominates trade, technology, wealthy • US and Europe • service/information=tertiary, quaternary – Periphery: disadvantaged, dependent, poor • Central Asia, Most of Africa, Parts of S. America • raw materials, extractive, agriculture (primary, secondary) – Semi-periphery: transitional • Australia, Asia, Central, South America • combination of the two, in transition between raw materials to manufacturing to information (secondary, tertiary) Economic sectors: • Primary: raw materials: agriculture, natural resource extraction • mining, fishing, forestry, • Secondary: industry, manufacturing • process, transform raw materials food processing, steelmaking automobile manufacturing • Tertiary: sale and exchange of goods and services • warehousing, retail, personal services • Quaternary: handling/processing of information International Trade and Debt: • Global trade dominated by 4 trading blocs – Western Europe (some former colonies) – North America (some Latin American States) – Former Soviet Union – Japan and other East Asian states • Free trade and open markets – Neo-liberal (no regulation) trade policies from core • Peripheral countries dependent on core countries – Demand for goods – Foreign investment – Technology • Dependence on European cultural products: language, education, religion, architecture – Africa Debt • International division of labor – Periphery: agriculture/natural resources • Elasticity of demand/price – Limit to demand for peripheral products, low prices • Import substitution – Build manufacturing/industrial base • Capital/debt – Core countries, World Bank, IMF Debt builds up if investments are more expensive than profits. The only way to get rid of debt is to forgive it. Countries paying pack debt aren’t even paying the actually debt, but interest. Hegemony: Dominance of one group over other groups. Force them to do things their ways. Dominance socially, economically, and politically in the world system Superpower: State with wealth and power over others: Large populations, wealth and strong armies. • Pre World War II: – France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Soviet Union, United States, United Kingdom- Post World War II: o China, France, UK, USSR, US (named themselves UN security council) ^ five permanent, 10 that change every two years o after 1945 Chins France and UK lost superpower status o after Cold War USSR lost superpower status o US only superpower (imperialism)- Potential superpowers o European Union: nuclear capacity, largest economy in the world o China: large population, largest army, small nuclear arsenal...
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geog124studyguid1exam1 - Geography is the study of the...

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