Congress started making hierarchies to get stuff done. First departure was parties: organizing for power. Over 90% of house and senate in federalist and anti-federalist when Washington was leaving office. Parties are a major answer to arrow paradox, as they agree to what to disagree about. Parliamentary procedure gives workgroups and understanding. Party leadership keeps records of contracts. Parties want access not necessarily credit. Party leaders say shut up and vote. Second hierarch is the committee system: ways and means committee had everything to do with financing. Committees are involved in the processes of bills (standing committees do not change each 2 years and are given precise legal jurisdiction and committees will fight over who should do what). Congress for 100 years defied common sense by making law defying arrow paradox and first 2 hierarchies helped congress overcome. From Jackson to FDR presidency like bucket of warm spit, but after that Presidents had great power. Compromise between need to represent and make legislation.
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This note was uploaded on 02/20/2009 for the course GOVT 111 taught by Professor Lowi during the Fall '08 term at Cornell.