Parties are interest groups that try to get more out of government they are distinctive because they can’t make policy, so they try to influence policy makers. Elections are way to alternate personnel. Parties help run the legislature. 500,000 offices are filled by election. Short ballot movement to reduce # of choices on polls. Only 535 people serve outside their states (Congress). Rousseau guys find enormous scale a bad thing. Short ballot people said we didn’t have enough info to vote on. Madison said representation can be improved with locally districted elections. Small districts are parochial (parochial) like Bill Clinton is local and Europeans find us parochial strengths and weaknesses. Before 1830’s political parties were shunned like prostitution. After Jackson they became sanitized. Democracy with parties is a natural thing. Parties organize from bottom up and can organize any elections. Parties set up ballots, districts, and supervisors. Party organization called committees. State incorporates a bunch of smaller districts. Parties are
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