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ch 16_Notes - Lowi This chapter is about foreign policy and...

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Lowi: This chapter is about foreign policy and describes the players, values, instruments, and role nations play in the process. The most important player is the President, who usually has little foreign policy experience, but is Commander and Diplomat in Chief of the US. He helps his cause by focusing one message or face to the international community. He is helped by members of the bureaucracy such as the state dept, CIA, defense dept. etc. The bureaucracy has more power than many would think, because although its members get less spotlight, they have enormous expertise in their area, and are more than just appointed cronies. With less influence than the two previous institutions we arrive at the Congress. The main power of Congress comes from approving the cabinet and launching investigations. While they technically have power of the purse, historically they usually fund what the President wants in terms of foreign policy, as politics traditionally ends at the water’s edge. Interest groups that focus on an issue or ethnic background have historically been the most successful in lobbying the government, like the Jews. Historically the US followed Washington’s advice to beware of foreign politics, but since FDR with the US becoming a superpower and the decline of Federalism we have institutionalized an active role for ourselves in foreign policy. An example of this institutionalization is the UN, which the US funds 30% of the budget for. We can also exert our influence through economic aid, our military, and collective groups like NATO. In recent years, the US have played two roles through foreign policy: the Napoleonic forcing Democracy by the sword or pocketbook (Afghanistan and Iraq) and that of preserving the Holy Alliance or maintaining stability (recognizing China as a country and supporting Saudi Arabia and Pakistan). Questions : 1. Immanuel Kant’s democratic peace theory states Democracies are less likely to go to war with each other because the citizens’ children pay the burden. Is this theory weakened by the all-volunteer Army in USA that under-represents the rich? 2. Will Hillary Clinton be more Napoleonic in her foreign policy decisions or fight to preserve the Holy Alliance?
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