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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 1 Political Efficacy – the ability to influence government and politics Citizenship – informed and active membership in a political community Government – institutions and procedures through which a territory and its people are ruled Autocracy – a form of government in which a single individual, a king, queen, or dictator rules Oligarchy – a form of government in which a small group – landowners, military officers, merchants – controls most of the governing decisions Democracy – a system of rule that permits citizens to play a significant part in the governmental process, usually thought the election of key public officials Constitutional Government – a system of rule in which formal and effective limits are placed on the powers of the government Authoritarian Government - a system of rule in which the government recognizes no formal limits but may nevertheless be restrained by the power of other social institutions Totalitarian Government – a system of rule in which the government recognizes no formal limits on its power and seeks to absorb or eliminate other social institutions that might challenge it. Politics – conflict over the leadership, structure, and policies of governments Power – influence over a government’s leadership, organization or policies Representative Democracy/Republic – a system of government in which the populace selects representatives, who play a significant role in governmental decision making Direct Democracy - a system of rule that permits citizens to vote directly on laws and policies Pluralism – the theory that all interest are and should be free to compete for influence in the government. The outcome of this competition is compromise and moderation. Direct Action Politics – a dorm of politics such as civil disobedience or revolutionary action, that takes place outside formal channels. Political Culture – broadly shared values, beliefs, and attitudes about how the government should function. American political culture emphasizes the values of liberty, equality, and democracy. Liberty – freedom from governmental control Limited government – a principle of constitutional government; a government whose powers are defined and limited by a constitution Laissez-faire Capitalism - an economic system in which the means of production and distribution are privately owned and operated for profit with minimal or no government interference Equality of opportunity – a widely shared American ideal that all people should have the freedom to use whatever talents and wealth they have to reach their fullest potential Political Equality – the right to participate in politics equally, based on the principle of one person, one vote Popular Sovereignty – a principle of democracy in which political authority rests ultimately in the hands of the people Majority rule/minority rights – the democratic principle that a government follows the preferences of the majority of voters but protects the interests of the minority. preferences of the majority of voters but protects the interests of the minority....
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