first gov reading_Notes - Founders made gov. complex to...

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Founders made gov. complex to ensure nobody would monopolize power. Government- formal institutions through which a land or people are ruled. Autocracy-rule by 1 leader. Small group is oligarchy. Constitutional or liberal govs have limits of power. Authoritarian govs kept in check by forces they can’t control. Governments that try to control everything are totalitarian. Government uses coercision such as jail to make people comply or conscription (such as military draft). (serve on juries or pay taxes. According to Hobbes bad gov. is better than no gov. Public goods are free ridden as everyone can enjoy them (national defense). Aristotle believed since humans were social state automatically good question is how to rule it? Hobbes and Locke govs are legit if restrictions on human freedom are consensual. Govt was to preserve rigts and allow citizens to influence it. Politics-conflicts over character, membership, and policies of any org that people belong to. “who gets what? When? How? Those who don’t vote still want influence they just don’t think they can get it through the system. Rationality principal -all political behavior has purpose: people do not watch denates or vote by accident and politicians choose to behave and do the things they do and shoulder the risks. Resale politics-direct contact with politican like him helping u find a social security check or get a kid into a service academy. Wholsesale politics are appealing to collections of constituents like introducing a bill to benefit a group of veterans. Collective action principal Informal bargaining can simply be done between individuals. Subjects not important enough to have formal institutions. Formal bargaining has rules imposed. (legislatures, courts, party conventions). Collective action example draining a big swamp that gives all mosquito problems. (15) Olsen proposed giving selective benefits to only those who helped out. Collective action problems include pollution and corruption tarnish the whole. Institutions do public’s business without having to go through collective action each time. Institution principle: They routinely solve collective action problems. Regular problems are institutionalized. Institutions are rules and procedures that shape politics. Tragedy of commons since everyone owns it nobody cares about it. Authority that institutions provide politicians for pursuit of public policies (following). Jurisdiction - disignation of one who applies rules or makes decisions, what an institution can do. Limits applied if jurisdictional authority is exceeded. Decisiveness (rules for making decisions like a vote to move to the previous question in debate. Go staright to the vote). Agenda power who determines what will be taken up for discussion gatekeeping not vetoing. delegation citizens through voting delegate authority to make decisions on their behalf. Committee system delegates expertise. Must make sure agents are properly motivated principal-agent relationship less transaction costs when both people have same goals. Policy Principle
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This note was uploaded on 02/20/2009 for the course GOVT 111 taught by Professor Lowi during the Fall '08 term at Cornell University (Engineering School).

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first gov reading_Notes - Founders made gov. complex to...

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