More definitions of terms_Study_Guide

More definitions of terms_Study_Guide - GOVERNMENT 111...

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GOVERNMENT 111 - FINAL TERMS Chapter 6 - Public Opinion Public Opinion: citizens’ attitudes about political issues, leaders, institutions, and events Values (or beliefs): basic principles that shape a person’s opinions about political issues and events Political Ideology: a cohesive set of beliefs that forms a general philosophy about the role of government. Attitude (or opinion): a specific preference on a particular issue. Equality of Opportunity: a widely shared American ideal that all people should have the freedom to use whatever talents and wealth they have to reach their fullest potential. Liberty: freedom from government control Democracy: a system of rule that permits citizens to play a significant part in the governmental process, usually through elections of key public officials Political Socialization: the induction of individuals into the political culture; learning the underlying beliefs and values upon which the political system is based. Agencies of Socialization: social institutions, including families and schools, that help to shape individuals’ basic political beliefs and values. Gender Gap: a distinctive pattern of voting behavior reflecting the differences in views between women and men. Liberal: today this term refers to those who generally support social and political reform; extensive governmental intervention in the economy; the expansion of federal social services; more vigorous efforts on behalf of the poor, minorities, and women; and greater concern for consumers and the environment. Conservative: today this term refers to those who generally support the social and economic status quo and are suspicious of efforts to induce new political formulae and economic arrangements. Conservatives believe that a large and powerful government poses a threat to citizens’ freedom. Political Efficacy: the ability to influence government and politics Marketplace of ideas: the public forum in which beliefs and ideas are exchanged and compete Public Opinion Polls: scientific instruments for measuring public opinion
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Sample: a small group selected by researchers to represent the most important characteristics of an entire population Probability Sampling: a method used by pollsters to select a representative sample in which every individual in the population has an equal probability of being selected as a respondent. Random Digit Dialing: polls in which respondents are selected at random from a list of ten-digit telephone numbers, with ever effort made to avoid bias in the construction of the sample. Selection Bias: polling error that arises when the sample is not representative of the population being studied which create errors in over-representing or under representing some opinions. Sampling Error: polling error that arises based on the small size of the sample Measurement Error: failure to identify the true distribution of opinion within a population because of errors such as ambiguous or poorly worded questions.
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