Midterm Study Guide - ID_StudyGuide

Midterm Study Guide - ID_StudyGuide - 20/02/2009 06:32:00...

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20/02/2009 07:32:00 Lusitania Crisis 1915 May 7 o German submarine (U-20) sank the British liner Lusitania o 128 Americans died o did not take the zig-zag course that was frequently used by American ships to evade German U-boats makes anti-German feelings in the US “white hot” later investigation proved that the Lusitania in fact had munitions on board Caused Wilson to send a note to the Germans demanding that Germany pledge to never again attack a passenger liner o Insisted on the right of Americans to travel on any passenger ship they please Arabic Pledge August 1915 British liner that the Germans sank o 2 Americans were killed Germans responded with the Arabic Pledge o Said that no passenger ships would be sunk without a warning Germany did not adhere to the pledge Sussex Affair March 1916 German sub torpedoed the Sussex o 80 lives lost
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4 Americans Wilson issued an ultimatum o Unless Germany stops “it’s present practice of submarine warfare” we the US will break relations with Germany Germans issued Sussex pledge o Agreed to Wilson’s demand, but issued a demand of their own The US also must put pressure on the British to lift the blockade Importance: o The Sussex pledge meant that Wilson was limiting his own options Reducing his own maneuverability House-Grey Memo 1916 signed by Colonel House attempted to seduce the Allies to a peace conference by promising that if they accepted and Germany refused to accept terms that the Allies like, the US would join the war on the side of the Allies o Wilson got nervous, so he inserted the word probably But then Grey backed out of the proposal, said the US would join the war soon anyway Wilson backed out too Peace Without Victory Speech January 1917 Wilson’s speech before Congress Stated: o A peace in which neither side could dictate terms to the other side
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o The post-war settlement must protect American interests o Attacked the old balance of power Principles: o Self-determination for all nations large or small o Freedom of the seas o The end of entangling alliance that created these competitions for power “These are American principles, American policies” What Wilson was saying was that if the US entered the conflict, it would do so not simply out of the goodness of its own heart, but to protect American self-interest Zimmerman Telegram Intercepted by British intelligence on March 1, 1917 A cable said German foreign minister asked Mexico to ally with Berlin in exchange for getting back territory it had lost to the US (i.e. California and Texas) Was not taken seriously by Wilson Collective Security Leading idea behind the League of Nations The Fourteen Points January 8, 1918 Wilson’s response to challenge posed by Lenin Points 1-5 o Promised an “open” world after the war A world distinguished by open covets openly arrived by o Freedom of navigation on the seas
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Midterm Study Guide - ID_StudyGuide - 20/02/2009 06:32:00...

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