FoodPsychology_Presentation

FoodPsychology_Presentation - Food Psychology and...

Info iconThis preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: Food Psychology and Overeating Professor Brian Wansink Food & Brand Lab ­­ Director Cornell University Who? We Examine the“Whys” Behind What Consumers Eat 6 Profs from 5 depts 7 graduate students Hidden camera observation lab 2 restaurants; 1 snack room A 3400 person national consumer mail panel 5 cooperating stores Lab experiments Field studies Consumer panels Data­base mining In­depth interviews “Hidden” In­kitchen cameras Since 1990 . . . How? • 115 studies • 43 referred journal articles • 1 book (& 1 forthcoming) • 70% focuses on consumption volume & frequency Marketing Nutrition New 2004-Brian Wansink U of Illinois Press What Unknowingly Influences Consumption? There Might be Systematic Explanations • Step 1. Uncovering the Systematic Biases • Step 2. Explaining these Biases Consider a Shopping Related Warm­up Example Why Do We Buy Too Many? Warm­up Shopping Example: Which Sign Sells More . . . • Limit 12/person • 3 for $3.00 • Buy 18 for the weekend vs. vs. vs. No Limit/person 1 for $1.00 Buy some for the weekend Wansink, Brian, Robert J. Kent, and Stephen J. Hoch (1998), ÒAnAnchoring and Adjustment Model of Purchase Quantity Decisions,ÓJournal of Marketing Research, 35:1 (February), 71-81. Why Do We Buy Too Many? We focus on what to buy . . . not how many We are highly suggestible to numerical signs • • • • We anchor on their numbers and adjust our purchase from there Examples: 12 per person 3 for 99¢ Buy 6 for snacks We say, “I usually buy 1 or 2, but . . .” Numerical signs can end up doubling how much we buy “Oh, but that never happens to me . . .” Wansink, Brian, Robert J. Kent, and Stephen J. Hoch (1998), ÒAnAnchoring and Adjustment Model of Purchase Quantity Decisions,ÓJournal of Marketing Research, 35:1 (February), 71-81. Two Topics for Today . . . 1. How the Size and Shape of Containers Influence Consumption 2. Taste Suggestibility Beware of the Size and Shape of Containers General Finding About Package Size . . . Study 1. Hungry for Stale Movie Popcorn? Study 2. Do Shapes Bias Consumption? Study 3. The Philadelphia Bartender Study Study 4. How about a Different Form of Fat? Package Size Increases Consumption People who pour from larger containers eat more than those pouring from small • • • Consistent across 47 of 48 categories Obviously, up to a point Mediated by price per unit (R2= only 23%) 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 General Finding: Package Size Can Double Consumption Additional rationale . . . • There are no concerns of “running out” • More difficult to monitor Spagetti Crisco Oil M&Ms Criticism ­­>This only applies to hedonic 0 or tasty foods. For instance, the effects would be less for unliked foods. Wansink, Brian (1996), ÒCanPackage Size Accelerate Usage Volume?Ó "Small­x" "Medium­2x" "Large 3x" Journal of Marketing, Vol. 60:3 (July), 1-14. 1. Hungry for Some Stale Movie Popcorn? General Question • • Does food quality moderate? Any interesting gender effects? The Field Study (Chicago, IL) • • • Movie was Mel Gibson in “Payback” Free popcorn (“Illinois History Week”) 2x2 Design • After the movie, ask questions & weighed popcorn Wansink, Brian and SeaBum Park (2001), Ò t the Movies: How External Cues and A Perceived Taste Impact Consumption Volume,ÓFood Quality and Preference, 12:1 (January), 69-74. Large vs. X­Large Popcorn (pre­weighed) Fresh vs. 10­day­old Popcorn We Eat Much More from Big Containers People eat 45­50% more from extra­large popcorn containers than large ones They still eat 40­45% more with stale popcorn Grams Eaten 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Fresh 10 Days Old Wansink, Brian and SeaBum Park (2001), Ò t the Movies: How External Cues and A Perceived Taste Impact Consumption Volume,ÓFood Quality and Preference, 12:1 (January), 69-74. Large Bucket Extra­ Large Bucket 2. Do Serving Container Shapes Bias Consumption? Piaget’s Conservation of Volume • Kids think tall vessels hold more than wide vessels • They fixate on 1 dominate dimension (height) This should influence the consumption • If tall glasses are thought to hold more . . . They should over­pour in to short wide glasses But they should believe they under­poured Wansink, Brian and Koert van Ittersum (2003), Ò ttoms Up! Peripheral Cues and Bo Consumption Volume,ÓJournal of Consumer Research. December, forthcoming. 2. Do Serving Container Shapes Bias Consumption? 133 adolescents at a “Nutrition & Fitness Camp” in NH Cafeteria at breakfast time • Each was randomly given one glass when arriving • Tall narrow juice glass or a Short wide juice glass After exiting the line . . . • Asked some usage & perception questions • Usage volume was weighed Wansink, Brian and Koert van Ittersum (2003), Ò ttoms Up! Peripheral Cues and Bo Consumption Volume,ÓJournal of Consumer Research. December, forthcoming. Yes . . . Container Sizes and Shapes Bias Usage Volume Ounces of Juice 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 These vigilant “weight watchers” poured 88% more into short wide glasses, but believed they poured less Also true with adults Amount Poured Estimate (Jazz camp musicians in Westfield, MA) Tall Slender Glass Short Wide Glass Hmmm . . . does this still happen with experts and a specific target volume (say 1.5 oz)? Wansink, Brian and Koert van Ittersum (2003), Ò ttoms Up! Peripheral Cues and Bo Consumption Volume,ÓJournal of Consumer Research. December, forthcoming. 3. Do Peripheral Cues Influence Experts with Precise Target Volumes? 48 Philadelphia bartenders • Paid $4 to be involved in a study on “consumers” • Given 4 tall, slender (highball) glasses or 4 short, wide (tumbler) glasses Highball Glass Tumbler • Given 4 full 1500 ml bottles and asked to pour … Pour gin for gin & tonic Pour rum for rum & Coke • Split in to . . . Pour vodka for vodka tonic Less than 5 years experience Pour whiskey for whiskey/rocks More than 5 years experience Wansink, Brian and Koert van Ittersum (2003), Ò ttoms Up! Peripheral Cues and Bo Consumption Volume,ÓJournal of Consumer Research. December, forthcoming. “When in Philadelphia, Should I Ask for a Tumbler or a Highball Glass?” 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 Tall Highball Glass Short Tumbler Glass < 5 years 5+ years Bartenders poured 28% more alcohol into tumblers than highball glasses Experience doesn’t eliminate bias So, as a responsible bartender . . . • Etch pouring marks on glasses • Use highball glasses Wansink, Brian and Koert van Ittersum (2003), Ò ttoms Up! Peripheral Cues and Bo Consumption Volume,ÓJournal of Consumer Research. December, forthcoming. 4. Does the Form (or type) of Fat Influence its Consumption Volume? Is Olive Oil Healthier than Butter? • Not if people over­pour.. . • But do they? • Two Italian restaurants: Champaign, IL • People randomly given butter or olive oil Secretly video­taped Coded by mystery diners • Two measures . . . How much fat was eaten (oil or butter) How much bread was eaten Wansink, Brian (2003), Ò nteractions Between Forms of Fat Consumption and Restaurant I Bread Consumption,ÓInternational Journal of Obesity, forthcoming. People Ate More Olive Oil per Slice, But They Ate Fewer Slices of Bread 4.5 4 3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 Grams of Fat/Slice Slices of Bread They ate 16% more fat/slice They ate 19% less bread A total calorie punch­line • Don’t focus only on target foods • Focus also on companion foods I knew that Olive Oil Butter Wansink, Brian (2003), Ò nteractions Between Forms of Fat Consumption and Restaurant I Bread Consumption,ÓInternational Journal of Obesity, forthcoming. II. Can Labels Change the Taste of Foods? Study 1. The Curse of “Soy Inside” Now with Soy Study 2.. Descriptive Labels in the Cafeteria 1. The Curse of “Soy Inside” Can Labels make us taste what we believe we will taste? • • To the untrained palate, taste can be subjective Labels might provide the Power­of­Suggestion Phantom Ingredient Test Two Identical PowerBars • • One says “contains 10 grams of soy protein” One says “contains 10 grams of protein” Taste This New Product • • 70 adults taste and rate “soy” label 70 adults taste and rate “­­­­” label Now with Soy Wansink, Brian and Se-Bum Park (2002), Ò ensory Suggestiveness and Labeling: Do S Soy Labels Bias Taste?ÓJournal of Sensory Studies, 17:5 (November), 483-491. Sensory Suggestive Words Now with Soy Phantom Ingredient Test • • Exact same PowerBar No soy in them “Bad News” • People “taste” the non­existent soy and rate it low “Good News” • They think it’s healthy (but they still hate it) • Differences across segments 4.5 4 3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 Taste Texture Appearance Healthy No Soy Label Soy Label Wansink, Brian and Se-Bum Park (2002), Ò ensory Suggestiveness and Labeling: Do S Soy Labels Bias Taste?ÓJournal of Sensory Studies, 17:5 (November), 483-491. 3. Sensory Suggestiveness: Descriptive Labels in the Cafeteria How Suggestive is Our Palate? • • • • Goal: Improve perception of cafeteria food? Descriptive vs. non­descriptive labels Six week field study ­­ six products; rotated labels Self­selected ­­ evaluations after dining Seafood filet Chocolate Cake Will there be a Benefit or a Backfire? • • Benefit ­­> Wow . . . I feel like I’m in Brussels! Backfire ­­> I’m disappointed …this is dry chocolate cake Succulent Italian Seafood filet Belgium Black Forest Chocolate Cake Wansink, Brian, James M. Painter, and Koert van Ittersum, (2001) ÒDe criptive Menu s LabelsÕEffect on Sales,ÓCornell Hotel and Restaurant Administrative Quarterly, 42:6 (December), 68-72. “Well, I know what I like” ­­> Maybe Not People evaluate descriptive foods as more favorable • Better taste, better texture, but as having more calories 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Descriptive Label Plain Label Caveats • • All foods were of acceptable quality Self­selection (vs. realism) Assimilating NOT contrasting Next steps • • Taste Texture Calories Finding the point of reversal Moving this into the home . . . Wansink, Brian, James M. Painter, and Koert van Ittersum, (2001) ÒDe criptive Menu s LabelsÕEffect on Sales,ÓCornell Hotel and Restaurant Administrative Quarterly, 42:6 (December), 68-72. Thank You . . . Professor Brian Wansink Food & Brand Lab ­­ Director Cornell University Professor Brian Wansink Food & Brand Lab 350 Wholers Hall University of Illinois Champaign, IL 61820 217­244­0208 [email protected] Www.ConsumerPsychology.com ...
View Full Document

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

Ask a homework question - tutors are online