07_Language1_acquisition_Presentation

07_Language1_acquisition_Presentation - INTRODUCTION TO...

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Click to edit Master subtitle style Introduction to cognitive science Psych 102/COGST 101/LING 170/PHIL 191/ COMS 101
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Overview of Language Acquisition Approaches to Learning Language Relevance to Cognition In General Outline
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What do we learn? What do we learn it from? How do we study it? An Overview of Language Acquisition
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What is language acquisition? The process by which a human comes to learn a new language l Particularly spoken language l Particularly as a child l Particularly a first language
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What do we learn? Must learn that language matters in the first place Must learn to distinguish the phonemes that matter in their language Must learn the morphology & syntax (the combinatorial rules) of their language Must learn how the arbitrary symbols of language are bound to objects & events in the world
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What do we learn? 0 - 8 weeks l Discriminate native from non-native language l Preference for mother’s voice l Preference for prenatal stories l Reflexive crying & vegetative sounds
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What do we learn? 8 - 20 weeks l Discriminate phonemes categorically l Cooing & laughter
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What do we learn? 4 months l Vocal Play
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What do we learn? 6 months l Declines in non-native phoneme discrimination l Preference for native language clause boundaries l Pick out known “words” in nonsense stream l Reduplicative babbling (bababa, mamama)
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What do we learn? 10 months l No non-native phoneme discrimination l Preference for words with native stress pattern l Comprehend simple phrases (“give me a hug”) then individual words l Nonreduplicative babbling (bamito) & expressive jargon (playing with stress patterns)
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What do we learn? 12 months l One-word utterances (nouns, some action) l Semantic under and overextension
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What do we learn? 18 - 24 months l Know about 50 words then “word spurt” then rapid growth l Two-word utterances (telegraphic speech) “Mommy juice”, “More cookie”
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What do we learn? 2 - 5 years l l Negation l Questions l Complex sentences
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What do we learn? by 5 years l Know about 8,000 words l most basic grammatical forms
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What do we learn? We learn this rapidly and easily l No explicit training l No overt knowledge that we’re learning it l But it gets tougher as time progresses “How hard can it be to learn French?, French babies do it!”
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What do we learn it from? Positive evidence l Examples of what language should sound like l Over 99% of the language we hear is “grammatical” for the language we are learning
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Negative evidence l Examples of what is incorrect (that are labeled as such!) l Poverty of the stimulus/subset principle Without negative evidence the rules of language a child hypothesizes will be a superset of the language they are trying to learn (they will allow more than they should) l Or maybe not? Children do not get much negative
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This note was uploaded on 02/20/2009 for the course COGST 101 taught by Professor Bienvenue,b during the Spring '08 term at Cornell University (Engineering School).

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07_Language1_acquisition_Presentation - INTRODUCTION TO...

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