07_Language2_sentproc_Presentation

07_Language2_sentproc_Presentation - INTRODUCTION TO...

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Click to edit Master subtitle style Introduction to cognitive science Psych 102/COGST 101/LING 170/PHIL 191/ COMS 101
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Sentence Processing
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The Paradox of Sentence Processing Accounts of Ambiguity Resolution Choosing Between the Two Accounts Relevance to Cognition In General Outline
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Language is Immediate & Incremental Language is Filled with Ambiguity Yet it is Easy The Paradox of Sentence Processing
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Language is Immediate & Incremental Close Shadowing l Play recorded text over earphones l Participant repeats it back as rapidly as possible (with training, lag of about 1-2 syllables) l Mistakes are meaningful, not random So, participants have processed everything up to the mistake
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Language is Immediate & Incremental Eyetracking l “Touch the red square” Look at red square earlier if it is the only red thing on the screen Will vacillate between red square and red circle if both are on the screen Don’t wait for full sentence
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Language is Immediate & Incremental Garden-Path Sentences l Sentences “designed” to lead reader to misinterpretation l The horse raced past the barn fell If we waited till the end of the sentence to start parsing, we’d have no difficulty
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Language is Filled with Ambiguity The boy went fishing at the bank The man deposited a check at the bank The cop spotted the thief with the binoculars. The cop spotted the thief with the gun. The child spotted the paper with polka- dots.
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Language is Filled with Ambiguity Two convicts evade noose, jury hung Eye drops off shelf British left waffles on Falkland islands Prostitutes appeal to Pope Two sisters reunite after eighteen years at checkout counter Miners refuse to work after death
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The Paradox of Sentence Processing If we immediately & incrementally process ambiguous sentences, why do we so rarely notice the ambiguities?
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Syntactic Ambiguity Resolution Possible Sources of Information Approaches to Ambiguity Resolution 1. Modularity Hypothesis 2. Constraint Based Processing Accounts of Ambiguity Resolution
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Syntactic Ambiguity Resolution A major type of ambiguity in English l Syntactic ambiguity The student spotted the cheater Main clause verb The student spotted by the proctor was expelled Passive participle in reduced relative The student took the exam The student taken by the proctor was expelled
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Syntactic Ambiguity Resolution The biggest area of research in psycholinguistics (?) l How do we resolve ambiguity? What alternatives are available at the point of ambiguity? What information do we use to resolve the ambiguity? When do we use it? Like Nixon What do we know, and when do we know it?
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Syntactic Ambiguity Resolution The student spotted What do we do?
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