08_Learning_Memory1_learning_Presentation

08_Learning_Memory1_learning_Presentation - INTRODUCTION TO...

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Click to edit Master subtitle style Introduction to cognitive science Psych 102/COGST 101/LING 170/PHIL 191/ CS 171
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Learning Why do we learn? Non-Associative Learning: Habituation Associative Learning 1: Behaviorism Associative Learning 2: Operant Conditioning
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Hard wired systems vs. learning systems Why do we learn?
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Why do we learn? Lots of animals do not need to learn l “Ready-to-run” out of the box l Innate behaviors l In single-celled orgs l In bugs l In fish l In mammals
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Why do we learn? Humans require lots of learning l 15 years or so to get the survival basics down l 18 years (or more!) to get the social structure
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Why do we learn? Evolutionary trade-off l up sInnate behavior rapidly available But it can’t change It can’t deal with novel situations It can’t be erased (easily) It takes pace that could be used for something else l Learned behavior Takes a while to become available Can change as needed Culture & society can be an aid in “memory for
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Why do we learn? In robotics l Learned vs. “innate” behavior Robotics Machine learning
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Habituation Sensitization Neural Mechanisms Non-Associative Learning
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Habituation Ability to reduce or discontinue response to a repetitive or predictable stimulus Even in simple organisms l Light-sensitive bacteria vary their sensitivity depending of environment l Neurons habituate to levels of neurotransmitter Addicts need more cocaine to get the same high over time
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Sensitization Ability to increase or enhance response to a repetitive or predictable stimulus Respond faster & more strongly to a stimulus
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Neural Mechanisms Evidence from the sea slug (aplysia californica) l Model for neural basis of habituation Fairly simple nervous system Large (easy to see) neurons Obvious behavioral reflexes
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Neural Mechanisms Stimulate siphon with paint brush l Aplysia shows startle response l Retracts gills to protect them Repeated stimulation of siphon l response lessens l until gill retraction no longer occurs
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Before Habituation l Stimulation activates
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This note was uploaded on 02/20/2009 for the course COGST 101 taught by Professor Bienvenue,b during the Spring '08 term at Cornell University (Engineering School).

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08_Learning_Memory1_learning_Presentation - INTRODUCTION TO...

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