cog sci lec 3_Lecture_Notes - 9/9/2008 What is Cognitive...

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9/9/2008 1 What is Cognitive Science? Cognitive Science Philosophy Philosophy of mind Psychology Cognitive psychology neuroscience Cognitive neuroscience Linguistics Metal representation of language Computer Science AI & Robotics Psycho- linguistics neuropsychology Computational neuroscience Formal logic Semantics What is cognitive psychology How do we do science in the behavioral world? How science works Experiments, statistics and meaningful differences Information processing theory A view of what cognition does & how we might test it Outline Definitions Rationalism & Empiricism What is Cognitive Psychology? Definitions Neisser’s definition All processes by which sensory input is transformed, reduced, elaborated, stored, recovered and used Reisberg’s definition The empirical investigation of mental processes and activities used in perceiving, remembering, and thinking, and the act of using those processes Definitions Notice the lack of the word “mind” Focus on what can be investigated empirically Focus on what can be observed and manipulated Rationalism & Empiricism Remember our categorical syllogism about flying penguins: Penguins are birds All birds can fly Therefore: – Penguins can fly • The syntax of the syllogism is fine • The semantics is incorrect
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9/9/2008 2 Rationalism & Empiricism This conclusion is false even though the logic (the syntax) is correct Rationalism An approach to knowledge that works by determining what must be true is we assume that certain a set of premises are true If it were the case that all birds could fly then we would know that penguins can fly Empiricism Reliance on experience & observation for knowledge Check and see if penguins fly Rationalism & Empiricism Empirical research requires hypotheses and observations Create a hypothesis about the world Test it to see if it can explain the data you collect via observation Correctly predict future outcomes If a hypothesis fails to predict outcomes, reject it An example of science: not behavioral Statistics I: The joys of variability Statistics II: What is a meaningful difference? An example of science: behavioral How Science Works An example of science: not behavioral Ptolmey Greek Astronomer About 200 ad An example of science: not behavioral Observed that he didn’t feel the earth move under his feet Observed that planets have retrograde motion They appear to move backwards An example of science: not behavioral Made a hypothesis The earth was a fixed center to the universe Planets revolved around the earth on epicycles Predicted locations of planets very well
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9/9/2008 3 An example of science: not behavioral Hans Lippershey &Galileo Galilei made telescopes in the 1600s Allowed for better observations Discovery of phases of Venus An example of science: not behavioral Ptolmey’s epicycles do
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cog sci lec 3_Lecture_Notes - 9/9/2008 What is Cognitive...

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