hist - LECTURE_Notes - Amst 312 U.S. Foreign Relations...

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Amst 312 U.S. Foreign Relations Study Guide (3/12) Global Cold War I. Ike Takes Charge -well prepared to handle foreign policy -military officer if Asia, Europe, Africa, Latin America -Commander during WWII, liberated central and western Europe from Nazi -supreme commander of allied forces in NATO -Republican nominee, folksy approach -rise in TV ownership> exploited new technology -blamed setbacks on secretary of state, John Foster Dulles (experienced and involved) -Eisenhower ultimately controlled policy -orthodox vs. revisionist interpretation -congress willing to give up constitutional prerogatives in foreign policy -skilled at courting both democrats and republicans (successful politician> conservatives thought of him as conservative, liberals thought of him as liberal) -strong bipartisanism -the essence of McCarthyism lingered -operated within some limits at home II. Containment on the Cheap -stipulated that communism was not allowed to expand and that capitalism was not allowed to go bankrupt -adamant that the system not be ruined by spending too much on defense -selfish to benefit now at a cost later -military spending resulted in inflation -believed that nuclear superiority was a cheap way to contain communism -considered three alternatives: 1. conventional military means 2. threaten with nuclear weapons 3. all-out economic propaganda campaigns >>favored a combination of the first two -nuclear weapons gained new importance: “integral part of American defense, first resort” - massive retaliation policy : retaliate instantly by means and location of one’s own choosing (more bang for buck) -reduced Truman’s military budget while increasing the number of nuclear warheads (1000 in 1953>>18,000 under JFK) great nuke superiority! -1955 B-52 bomber : revolutionary new aircraft with 8 engines (famous in Vietnam) - Polaris missile : intercontinental ballistic missile from submerged submarine -nuclear testing from both superpowers led to radioactive fall-out and problems with radiation (1954 23 Japanese fishermen killed from sailing through a testing area) III. Resolution in Korea
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-truce in 1953 after seemingly interminable negotiations -threatened to use atomic weapons if unable to reach a resolution swiftly -example of massive retaliation that was used in other places (believed in its efficacy) -followed a policy close to containment -no resolution to Hungary uprising against Soviet rule in 1956 IV. Revolutions and CIA -contempt for the Soviet Union -control growing numbers of revolutionaries with new techniques - covert action by the CIA to deal with newly emerging nations -these were cheap and circumvented congress - Allen Dulles was the director of the CIA -examples when the CIA intervened to play an important role: 1. Iran: fervent nationalist Muhammad Mosedeq (1951) challenged the monopoly over oil held by the British -Eisenhower worried about his intentions so he called for a referendum and turned the CIA loose -claimed to have saved the Iran communist regime -implications: always seem beholden to the U.S
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hist - LECTURE_Notes - Amst 312 U.S. Foreign Relations...

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