05_Linguistics_Lecture_Notes - What is Cognitive Science...

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9/21/2008 1 INTRODUCTION TO COGNITIVE SCIENCE Psych 102/COGST 101/LING 170/PHIL 191/CS 171 What is Cognitive Science? Cognitive Science Philosophy Philosophy of mind Psychology Cognitive psychology Neuroscience Cognitive neuroscience Linguistics Metal representation of language Computer Science AI & Robotics Psycho- linguistics neuropsychology Computational neuroscience Formal logic Semantics What is linguistics? What language says about cognition in general Language has structure (and structure content) Rules in cognition Language is automatic Using the rules during cognition Language is incremental Following rules with only partial information Outline Language and cognition Why language can tell us about cognition What is linguistics? What is linguistics? Linguistics is the study of language Language is unique to human cognition Often seen as the hallmark of intelligence (rightly or wrongly) Definitions of retardation SETI Production of individual sounds Combining sounds into words Using sentences in a real-world context Language has structure (and structure content)
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2 The study of the collection of sounds in a language and the properties of each sound Language has structure (and structure content) Phoneme (one of the sounds of a language) Alphabet of sounds Described in terms of how they are produced All sounds are produced by pushing air out of the lungs and through the mouth and nose. Different sounds constrict the airflow in different ways Two broad classes of sounds in any language Consonants: Produced by constricting airflow Vowels: Very little constriction of airflow Three variables on which to further classify consonants Manner of articulation the way in which the airflow is constricted Place of articulation place that the constriction occurs Voicing whether or not the vocal folds vibrate (voiced) or not (voiceless) Manner of articulation Stops: airflow is completely blocked /t/ in tick Fricatives: partial blockage /š/ in shake Affricates: mix of stop and fricative /č/ in chew (t moving to š) Nasals: air forced through nose /m/ in my /l/ in lip Place of articulation Bilabial: lips come together /p/ in pit Labiodental: bottom lip and upper teeth come together /f/ in free Dental: tip of tongue touches teeth / θ / in thick Alveolar: tongue touches alveolar ridge /t/ in tick Palatal: back of tongue touches hard palate /š/ in shake Velar: back of tongue touches soft palate /k/ in kin
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05_Linguistics_Lecture_Notes - What is Cognitive Science...

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