06_ComputerScience_Presentation - Introduction to cognitive...

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Click to edit Master subtitle style Introduction to cognitive science Psych 102/COGST 101/LING 170/PHIL 191/ CS 171
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What is Cognitive Science? Cogniti ve Science Philosoph y Philosop hy of mind Psycholo gy Cognitive psychology Neurosci ence Cognitive neuroscien ce Linguisti cs Metal representation of language Computer Science AI & Robotics Psycho- linguisti cs neuropsycholo gy Computatio nal neuroscienc Formal logic Semantics Comput er
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What is computer science? What can computers tell us about “real” cognition? Good Old Fashioned Artificial Intelligence AI using symbol manipulation Connectionism AI using neurally plausible systems Outline
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And what does it have to do with cognition anyways? What is computer science?
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Computer Science Why should we assume computer can tell us anything about brains and/or the mind? l Computer models of cognition are explicit, testable & falsifiable Unlike some philosophical theories of mind l If we believe in the computational approach to cognition, then artificial intelligence is at least possible Might let us in on how the brain solves similar cognitive problems by comparing the solutions of the program and the human
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Computer Science Two basic types of AI research l Symbolic systems l Connectionist models
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Symbolic Systems Recall Alan Turing l Any problem that can be solved computationally can be solved with a Universal Turing Machine l All machines are in a sense equivalent Can we compute cognition? l If so, AI is possible
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Symbolic Systems Newel & Simon (1976) The Physical Symbol Systems (PSS) Hypothesis
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Symbolic Systems 3 parts to a PSS l a set of symbols elements which can be manipulated via rules
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Symbolic Systems A set of operations, rules to allow one to manipulate the symbols syntactically Create Destroy Combine Separate Copy
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Symbolic Systems A body of real world knowledge to supply meaning to the symbols
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Symbolic Systems “A physical symbol system [of sufficient size] has the necessary and sufficient means for general intelligent action” l Intelligence is computable l Sufficient: All it takes is symbols, syntax & a link to a knowledge base l Necessary: This is the only set of items able to create intelligence l This is the guiding principle of GOFAI (Good Old Fashioned AI)
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Achieving cognition function via symbol manipulation GOFAI
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GOFAI Major critique of GOFAI l “yeah, but a computer will never be able to do X” X = you favorite thing only humans can do l People started solving for X, limiting the space left for “humans-only” cognition l “Cognition of the gaps”
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X = Solve problems with formal logic Logic Theorist (LT) l Newell & Simon (1956) The Principia Mathematica l Russell & Whitehead
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X = Solve problems with formal logic Logic Theorist (LT) l Purely syntactic approach to AI l Given a set of symbols, the rules of First Order Logic, and the basic axioms of FOPL Equality: if R = S is true, so is S = R
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This note was uploaded on 02/20/2009 for the course COGST 101 taught by Professor Bienvenue,b during the Spring '08 term at Cornell University (Engineering School).

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06_ComputerScience_Presentation - Introduction to cognitive...

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