Unlike all the other thinkers we have encountered in this course, Fitzhugh, a southern apologist for
slavery, and Brownson, a northern socialist, argue that liberal society and the free market are
Write an essay comparing their critiques of capitalism.
What is wrong with the free market in their opinion?
What alternatives do they propose?
Do they reject liberal values altogether or do their ideas about a better society betray Lockean influences?
We have already stated that we should not attempt to introduce any new theories of government
and of society, but merely try to justify old ones, so far as we could deduce such theories from
ancient and almost universal practices. Now it has been the practice in all countries and in all
ages, in some degree, to accommodate the amount and character of government control to the
wants, intelligence, and moral capacities of the nations or individuals to be governed. A highly
moral and intellectual people, like the free citizens of ancient Athens, are best governed by a
democracy. For a less moral and intellectual one, a limited and constitutional monarchy will
answer. For a people either very ignorant or very wicked, nothing short of military despotism will
suffice. So among individuals, the most moral and well-informed members of society require no
other government than law. They are capable of reading and understanding the law, and have
sufficient self-control and virtuous disposition to obey it. Children cannot be governed by mere
law; first, because they do not understand it, and secondly, because they are so much under the
influence of impulse, passion and appetite, that they want sufficient self-control to be deterred or
governed by the distant and doubtful penalties of the law. They must be constantly controlled by
parents or guardians, whose will and orders shall stand in the place of law for them. Very wicked