Chem 101 Chapter 3- Molecules, Ions, and their Compounds

Chem 101 Chapter 3- Molecules, Ions, and their Compounds -...

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DNA: The Most Important Molecule DNA is the substance in every plant and animal that carries the exact blueprint of that plant or animal. The structure of this mole- cule, the cornerstone of life, was uncovered in 1953, and James D. Watson, Francis Crick, and Maurice Wilkins shared the 1962 Nobel Prize in medicine and physiology for the work. It was one of the most important scientific discoveries of the 20th century, and the story has recently been told by Watson in his book The Double Helix . When Watson was a graduate student at Indiana University, he had an interest in the gene and said he hoped that its biological role might be solved “without my learning any chemistry.” Later, however, he and Crick found out just how useful chemistry can be when they began to unravel the structure of DNA. Solving important problems requires teamwork among scien- tists of many kinds so Watson went to Cambridge University in England in 1951. There he met Crick, who, Watson said, talked louder and faster than anyone else. Crick shared Watson’s belief in the fundamental importance of DNA, and the pair soon learned that Maurice Wilkins and Rosalind Franklin at King’s College in London were using a technique called x-ray crystallography to learn more about DNA’s structure. Watson and Crick believed that understanding this structure was crucial to understanding genetics. To solve the structural problem, however, they needed experimental data of the type that could come from the experiments at King’s College. The King’s College group was initially reluctant to share their data; and, what is more, they did not seem to share Watson and Crick’s sense of urgency. There was also an ethical dilemma: Could Watson and Crick work on a problem that others had claimed as theirs? “The English sense of fair play would not allow Francis to move in on Maurice’s problem,” said Watson. 3 Molecules, Ions, and Their Compounds A. Barrington Brown/Science Source/Photo Researchers, Inc. The Basic Tools of Chemistry James D. Watson and Francis Crick. In a photo taken in 1953, Watson ( left ) and Crick ( right ) stand by their model of the DNA double helix. Together with Maurice Wilkins, Watson and Crick received the Nobel Prize in medicine and physiology in 1962. 96
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97 Chapter Outline 3.1 Molecules, Compounds, and Formulas 3.2 Molecular Models 3.3 Ionic Compounds: Formulas, Names, and Properties 3.4 Molecular Compounds: Formulas, Names, and Properties 3.5 Formulas, Compounds, and the Mole 3.6 Describing Compound Formulas 3.7 Hydrated Compounds Chapter Goals See Chapter Goals Revisited (page 130). Test you knowl- edge of these goals by taking the exam-prep quiz on the General ChemistryNow CD-ROM or website.
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