MidtermKey nutrition wi09

MidtermKey nutrition wi09 - BIBC120-MIDTERM Key 1) (50 pts...

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BIBC120-MIDTERM Key 1) (50 pts total) a) (7.5 pts) Give three different criteria or groupings used to modify or adjust EAR values within the population: 2.5 pts each (any 3): age, gender, physiological status, pregnant or lactating women b) (2.5 pts) Which macronutrient makes up the largest percentage of the US diet? Carbohydrates c) (5 pts) Give a definition for a Calorie as used on nutrition labels. The amount of energy or heat required to raise 1L of water 1 ° C. d) (20 pts) Give four metabolic functions that the liver performs to support the body’s physiology as given in this course. 5 pts each (any four): urea synthesis, alcohol metabolism, glucose production, lipoprotein particle production, chemical detoxification, bile production, glycogen storage. 3) (15 pts) Give 3 possible fates for pyruvate in human cells (provide the names of the immediate compounds that pyruvate is converted to (i.e. the product of the reaction) and name the reaction or enzyme that does the transformation). 2.5 pts each 2.5 pts each (any 3 is fine) Ac-CoA Pyruvate dehydrogenase Lactate Lactate dehydrogenase Alanine Transamination Oxaloacetate Pyruvate carboxylase (not covered in lecture)
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2 2) (50 pts) Note: extra 5 pts given free for this question. a) (5 pts) What is the name of the strongest muscle in the body (by weight) that is used for chewing food? 5 pts: Masseter (2.5 pts for temporalis) b) (7.5 pts) What are 3 digestive functions that saliva provides? 2.5 pts each: lubrication, sterilization, partial digestion of carbs (or amylase digestion of carbs). c) (5 pts) A defect in which circular muscle in the digest tract could result in “heartburn” (damage to the esophagus)? cardiac sphincter (or lower esophageal sphincter) d) (2.5 pts) Which compound would you expect to give the most relief for heartburn: salt (NaCl), sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO 3 ), or vinegar (Acetic acid)? sodium bicarbonate e) (5 pts) Which muscle in the GI tracts prevents the back flow of bacteria from a region of high concentration of bacteria to a region with low bacterial counts? ileocecal sphincter f) (10 pts) If you gave an animal an inhibitor of carbonic anhydrase, what effect would you expect this to have on stomach secretions if any? Explain. 5 pts: reduce acid secretion 5 pts: carbonic anhydrase catalyzes the production of carbonic acid, which releases the proton that is secreted into stomach cavity. g) (10 pts) Bayliss and Starling discovered the first hormone. In their experiments, secretions from which organ were shown by to be induced by the application of acid to the small intestine? What is the name of this hormone? 5 pts: pancreas 5 pts: secretin
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3 3) (40 pts total). a) (10 pts) Deamination of alanine gives you which two products?
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This note was uploaded on 02/20/2009 for the course BIBC bibc 120 taught by Professor Crawford during the Spring '08 term at UCSD.

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MidtermKey nutrition wi09 - BIBC120-MIDTERM Key 1) (50 pts...

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