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Lecture 6 - Foundation Reading Drawing 2

Lecture 6 - Foundation Reading Drawing 2 - Lecture 6...

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Unformatted text preview: Lecture 6 Reading Drawing ll Foundafions 1. Slab-on-grade foundations 2. Foundation walls on footings Foundafions 1. Slab-on-grade foundations 2. Foundation walls on footings { Aftervcompleting this unit, you will be able to perform the following tasks: t3" Find all information on a set of drawings pertaining to footing design. interpret drawings for stepped footings used to accommodate changes in elevation. t5 Discuss applicable building codes pertaining to building design. a] Determine the locations and dimensions 0t founda— tion walls indicated on a set of drawings. Describe special. features indicated for the founda— tion on a set of drawings. Slab—On—Grade Foundations — a single concrete slab, reinforced with steel to prevent cracking — supports the weight of the building — are common in Warm climates VAPOR BARRlER ——‘ WELDED WlRE FABRIC REINFORCES CONCRETE Figure 12—1. Slab-on—grade foundation Slab—On—Grade Foundations — A haunch is used to further strengthen the slab'where concentrated weight, such as a wall, will be located. l-IAUNCH TO REINFORCE SLAB CONCRETE SLAB. Figure 12w4. /-\ haunch is a thickened part ol a slab to reinforce it under a load-bearing wall, SIab-On-Grade Foundations ma p/A/E/ 3/9” pm W0. - PM Mr), SID/M5 /"P£A57/C F0444 W501.- 72"01/053MWH/7 V 4 MM. V/lpoe 2‘4 Bf r— wee/E5 Way/c suns —/ ye xxz "HAM/CH, - “a x77 DEB/METER L‘ Grave/m rum: IN 5mg TYP/CAL WALL 55(77'0A/ 55AM! 3/55/10" M 4”(RU$HED 57005 06 W175HED 6861/67. Questions: Type of foundation? Elements of the foundation? Elements of the exterior wall system? Elements of the roof system? Foundation Walls on Footings - Spread footings - Column pads — Building codes - Depth of footings — Reinforcement — Stepped footings — Foundation walls Spread footings - a separate concrete footing that “spreads” the gravity weight of the foundation wall over a greater soil area ' - made by placing concrete in a wooden or metal form FOUNDATION WALL — SPREAD FOOTING Hm] Spread footings - foundation walls are anchored to the footings by either keyway or dowels DOWELLS __ KEYWAY MONOLITHlC (ONE PIECE) ' Figure 12—8. Anchoring the foundation wall to the fooling Column pads — a special concrete pad indicated on the foundation plan to support a steel column, a masonry pier, or a wooden post. /-——PIPE COL. 24")! 243% /0” / [Cow FTQ/fY/Q) 4"/>/P£(04« " H ;—~CONCRETE FOOTlNG PlCTORIAL Building codes for footings , - Building codes for footings include such things as minimum permissible depth of footing, required strength of concrete for footing, the width of footings, and the use of key or dowels made of reinforcing steel. — All construction drawings are often superseded by local building codes. Figure 12-9 is an example. TABLE R403.1 MINIMUM WIDTH 0F CONCRETE 0R MASONRY FOOTlNGS , (inchesia B U i I d i n g LOAD~BEAFHNG VALUE OF SOIL (psi) -H .-. .. 1500 2,000 3,000 a 4,000 Conventional llght- ~frame construction . CO d e S fo r 1-story 12 12 12 12 2~slory 15 12 12 12 3-story ‘ 23 ' 17 12 12 footings 4-lnch brick veneer over light frame or B-lnch hollow concrete masonry 1-story 12 12 ‘ 12 12 2-story W 21 16 . 12 32 24 16 8- Inch solid or fully‘gfirouted masonry 1~story 16' 12 12 2~story 29 21 14 3—story 42 32 21 For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0,0479 kN/mz. a. Where minimum footing width IS 12 inches a single wythe of solid or fully grouted 12 inch nominal concrete masonry units is per mitted to be used. Figure 12—9. This is a table from the International Residential Code“, The entire section on footings is six pages long. Hep/oduoed with permission rom the Into/national Residential Qode®, 2003. Fails Qifui'ch, VA. international Code Councii 200.3 ' Depth of footings in many sections of North America, the moisture in the surface of the earth freezes in the winter. When the earth under a footing freezes, it expands and will either crack the footing or move the building. To avoid this problem, the footing should be placed below the depth of any possible freezing. This depth is called ‘frost line’. Figure 12—12 provides average frost depths in United States Depths or elevations of footings are shown on construction drawings and can be identified by dimensioning the bottom of the footing from a point of known elevation, is reference point or bench mark Foctings and other features elevations are marked with a reference symbol QB: , called a datum symbol, are to be used as a reference point for other dimensions ‘ EXTREME FROST PENETRATION ( m INCHES ) BASED UPON STATE AVERAGES Figure 12-«12. Average frost depths in the United States Reinforcement REINFORCEMENT BARS Size Designation Diameter in Inches reinforcement is ‘375 usually in the form of 500 steel reinforcement ' 625 bars, also called .750 rebars 1875 — Reinforcement bars _ 1.000 are designated by ‘ 1:128 their diameters in 1.270 eighths of an inch 1.410 1.693 2.257 — Footing Stepped footings — Used when it is necessary to change the depth of the footings to accommodate the existing slope of the site. STEEL REINFORCEMENT CONTINUOUS THROUGH STEP H\ 8" STEP ——~~—MlN|MUM OVERLAF’ l8 6 lNCHES Figure 124 4. Stepped footing Foundation Walls — Materials used for construction of foundation walls could be either structural concrete or concrete blocks Z4HKZ4 l5(8 " [0N5 FM,» (7%?) FOUNDATION OLA/V Foundation Walls —The details of a masonry foundation may call for horizontal reinforcement in every second or third course. This is usually prefabricated wire reinforcement to be embedded in the mortar joints. Prefabricated wire reinforcement is available in varying sizes for different sizes of concrete blocks ‘ — In concrete foundations, anchor bolts, are placed in the top of the foundation. These bolts are left protruding out of the top Of the foundation so that the wood superstructure can be fastened in place later. Foundation Walls -Special features: Many foundations include steel or wooden - beams, girders to support the floor framing over long spans. Sizes of these beams/girders are usually indicated in the foundation drawings. Below are common sizes of structural steel/wood girders. «SHAPE: -. S = STANDARD BEAM W = WIDE-FLANGE BEAM ’NOMINAL. DEPTH IN lNCHES . F rWi-I'IGHT PER FOOT lN POUNDS w. Tl—llCKNESS EACH lNoMlNAL) IN lNCHES w» Wll)TH EACH (NOMiNAL) lN INCHES 10 8 8 10 35 23 18A 33 21 ll.5 31 28 W 13 1WNUMBER OF PlECES 2 2 3 3 3 Eéiiééémm“ xxxxxxxx‘x‘x mwummwm.ww~mmm~m W.Wmmmm.mwmmm~m WWWMWN‘MWW Typical specifications for structural steel and wood built—up girders Foundation Walls Special features: (Refer the drawings of Lake House) ~ 31/2“ STD. WT. STL. COL. W/8x8x1/2 B.PL. = 3%. ~inch square, standard— weight, steel column with 8—inCh-by-8— inch—by-Vz —inch thick base plates — FILL CORE SOLID W/ GROUT 1:1:6 = 1PORTLAND: 1MAS. CEMENT: GAGGREGATE = The cores in the concrete block foundation where the steel work will be erected are filled with this grout to provide the extra strength necessary to support the steel. - 4” concrete slab w/8x8—10/10 WWF‘ ,/ ”/m/ ’WIO GAUGE WIRE BOTH WAYS 8X8~lO/1O WWF Bum” A SPACING » ~WEL,0ED WIRE FABRIC 10 GA WIRE BOTH WAYS 1O ...
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