Unformatted text preview: Channel Tunnel
By: Jon Quigley Keith Jourdian Roberto Bernal Kyle Larsen Basic Facts Location: Folkestone, England and Coquelles, France Completion Date: 1994 Cost: 21 billion Length: 163,680 ft (31 miles) Type: Railway Materials: Steel, concrete Channel Tunnel Timeline 1802 French mining engineer Albert Mathieu put forth the first proposal to tunnel under the English Channel, using horse drawn coaches and illumination from oil lamps. 1830 Frenchman Aimé Thomé de Gamond performed the first hydrographical and geological surveys on the Channel, between Calais and Dover. 1881 British railway entrepreneur Sir William Watkin and French Suez Canal contractor Alexandre Lavalley conducted exploratory work on both sides of the Channel. On the English side a 6,211 ft tunnel was bored from Shakespeare Cliff and on the French side a 5,476 ft tunnel was bored from Sangatte. 1882 – Tunneling would stop as British press campaigns would argue that the tunnel would be a threat to national security. 1955 – Previous claims of a threat to national security would be considered irrelevant due to the new dominance of air power. 1974 – Construction would again commence as a governmentfunded project utilizing a new twin tunnel design. 1975 – The British cancelled the project due to a troubled national economy and a 200% jump in cost estimates, much to the dismay of the French government. 1981 – A working group was established to look into a privately funded project led by British leader Margaret Thatcher and French leader Francois Mitterrand. 1985 – Private companies were invited to present their individual proposals: – a rail proposal based on the 1975 scheme presented by Channel Tunnel Group/France–Manche (CTG/F–M). – Eurobridge – a 4.5 km span suspension bridge with a roadway in an enclosed tube. – Euroroute – a 21 km tunnel between artificial islands approached by bridges. – Channel Expressway – large diameter road tunnels with midchannel ventilation towers. 1985 – The Channel Tunnel Group was awarded the project and would consist of ten construction companies and five banks. 1987 – Both the French and British Government approve the project and construction can once again continue. 1994 – The tunnel is officially opened by French President Francois Mitterrand and Queen Elizabeth II in Calais. Channel Tunnel Design
A: Railway B: Service tunnel C: Service tunnel connection D: PistonRelief Duct Channel Tunnel Trains Passenger Trains – Typical passenger train such as Amtrak – All trains are electric – Main competition is the airline companies Shuttle Trains
– – – – Main competition is the ferry companies. Carry cars Driveon/driveoff style All trains are electric Tunnel Boring Machines The tunnelboring machines (also known as TBMs or "moles") used to drill the Channel Tunnel could drill up to 250ft in a day. The TBMs consisted of a rotating cutter which chips away spoil, the spoil is then carried backward on a conveyor belt and into a railroad truck. While the cutter moves the TBM forward it is simultaneously kept straight by a laser guidance system. To keep the tunnel from collapsing giant concrete tunnel supports are put into place as the TBM moves along. Fires! November 18, 1996 a fire broke out on a heavy goods shuttle, although nobody was seriously injured it was estimated that temperatures at the heat of the fire reached 1,800° F. The tunnel would continue full operations six months after the fire with 500 meters to be repaired. On August 21, 2006 a fire breaks out on a lorry shuttle causing the closure of the tunnel for several hours. September 11, 2008 a fire occurs on freightcarrying vehicle 6.8 miles from the French entrance. No one was killed but several people were taken to the hospital for smoke inhalation. Immigration
• • • • • • The tunnel has become a popular means for illegally immigrating into the UK. In 1997 it meet international press causing the French Red Cross to open a refugee center at Sangatte in 1999. In 2002 the center was known to hold as many as 1,500 refugees, mostly trying to get to the Britain. Most refugees came from Iraq, Afghanistan, and Iran, some were know to come from Africa and eastern European countries. Though stations were fenced and watched by security personnel refugees found other ways of getting on the trains such as jumping off of overhanging bridges. Twelve refugees have been killed due to rail crossing attempts. Fast Facts The Channel Tunnel cost 700 times more than the Golden Gate Bridge at 21 billion dollars. Many of the boring machines used were capable of boring 250 feet per day and were as long as two football fields. With the first five years of operation the tunnel carried 28 million passengers and 12 million tons of freight through the tunnel. 13,000 engineers, workers, and technicians helped construct the tunnel. The UK has increased in size by 90 acres due to the tunnel spoils deposited at Shakespeare Cliff. The tunnels are an average of 50m below the seabed. The tunnel lining was designed for a 120 year life, meaning that no significant deterioration could occur within this time period. The best week of boring in the UK was 426m of tunnel constructed while in France it was 322m. The Channel Tunnel is longest undersea tunnel in the world. T H E E N D ...
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- Fall '08
- Channel Tunnel