LS3-1_Lecture1H

LS3-1_Lecture1H - Chentao Lin Professor of Molecular, Cell,...

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Unformatted text preview: Chentao Lin Professor of Molecular, Cell, & Developmental Biology UCLA LS3-1 An area of science that addresses questions concerning the physical and chemical basis of life What are genes? How are genes expressed? How are genes maintained? How do proteins work? . What is molecular biology? DNA, RNA, Proteins- Three domains of life and two types of cells- Review of cells - Review of molecules- A brief history of the study of genes #1 Introduction 1. Three Domains of Life Living organisms on earth can be divided into three domains 1. Bacteria 2. Eukaryota 3. Archaea living in the most inhospitable regions of the earth Thermophiles tolerate extremely high temperatures Halophiles tolerate very high salt concentrations Methanogens produce methane as a by-product of metabolism Three domains of life, two types of cells prokaryotes eukaryotes Procryote (=prokaryote) 2. Review of the cell Cellthe minimum self-replicating unit of life Eucaryote (=eukaryote) Prokaryotes vs eukaryotes Common to both: Plasma membrane, DNA, RNA, protein, genetic code Mechanisms of metabolism, energy production, protein synthesis, modification, and transportation. Only in Eukaryotes: Multicellular Extensive internal membrane systems Nucleus, other organelles, and cytoskeleton DNA is packed into multiple chromosomes Sexual reproduction Cell is surrounded by a plasma membrane-Plasma membrane is a single lipid- bilayer composed of phospholipids and proteins. Nucleus is the largest organelle of eukaryotic cells A typical animal cell A rat hormone secretion cell A typical plant cell A plant leaf cell Eukaryotic cells have other organelles Mitochondrion and chloroplast are energy (ATP) producing organelles mitochondrion chloroplast Eukaryotic cell is a membrane system Plasma membrane is a single membrane. The nuclear envelope, mitochondrial membrane and chloroplast membrane are all double membranes (with two lipid bilayers). Where are mitochondrion/chloroplast from?- endosymbiosis Mitochondrion and chloroplast have their own genomes encoding limited numbers of their own proteins From prokaryote to eukaryote Approx. timeline Earth ~4.5 BYA Prokaryote/ ~3.8 BYA Archaea Eukaryote ~2.0 BYA Multicellular ~1.0 BYA The oldest fossil: cyanobacteria 3.8 BYA Present day cyanobacteria Review of Chemistry atom and molecule radioactive isotopes acid vs base quantify molecules chemical bonds Biomolecules small molecules large molecules (polymers) 3. Review of molecules Atoms...
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LS3-1_Lecture1H - Chentao Lin Professor of Molecular, Cell,...

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