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lec10_mito b-post - Lecture #10 Mitochondria – Cellular...

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Copyright © 2009, Dr. Salme Taagepera, PhD. All rights Lecture #10 Mitochondria – Cellular Energetics www.nrsl.umd.edu/courses/plsc400/Cells/Mitochondria.jpg
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Copyright © 2009, Dr. Salme Taagepera, PhD. All rights Lecture #10 Mitochondria – Cellular Energetics KEY CONCEPTS : • Mitochondria convert external energy (chemical nutrients = food) into intracellular energy (ATP) • Electrons released from the breakdown of food travel through an electron transport chain of proteins, creating a proton (H+) electrochemical gradient • Release of the proton-motive force drives synthesis of ATP
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Copyright © 2009, Dr. Salme Taagepera, PhD. All rights
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Copyright © 2009, Dr. Salme Taagepera, PhD. All rights Lecture #10: Mitochondria I. What do mitochondria do for the cell? Convert food molecules into energy for the cell through oxidative phosphorylation II. Mitochondrial structure and organization Double-membraned organelle Abundant Distributed throughout the cell Dynamic! III. Mitochondria contain DNA!
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Copyright © 2009, Dr. Salme Taagepera, PhD. All rights ATP (the key energy source of a cell) is generated in the mitochondria pyruvate (3C), acetyl-CoA (2C) intermediates ATP amino acids, simple sugars (6C), fatty acids
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Copyright © 2009, Dr. Salme Taagepera, PhD. All rights How do mitochondria produce ATP? Key mitochondrial mechanism: oxidative phosphorylation Definition of oxidative phosphorylation: “Generation of ATP from ADP through the oxidation of metabolic products (food) to CO 2 During biological oxidation, chemical potential energy is not just released in biological oxidation reactions. Rather, it is transduced into a more useful form of chemical energy in the molecule ATP
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Copyright © 2009, Dr. Salme Taagepera, PhD. All rights Net result oxidative phosphorylation: Oxidation food Electrochemical gradient (H+ gradient across inner mito membrane) ATP synthesis
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Copyright © 2009, Dr. Salme Taagepera, PhD. All rights ATP-synthase enzyme utilizes proton gradient to make ATP
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Copyright © 2009, Dr. Salme Taagepera, PhD. All rights ATP synthase uses proton gradient for ATP synthesis Protons flow through the stalk down their electrochemical gradient and cause the stalk to spin, thus converting electric energy into mechanical energy • The “ rubbing” of the rotating stalk against the stationary head group induces conformational changes in the head group that leads to ATP synthesis NET RESULT: conversion of mechanical energy into chemical bond
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Copyright © 2009, Dr. Salme Taagepera, PhD. All rights Coupling oxidative metabolism (proton gradient) with phosphorylation of ADP (ATP synthase) is a key step for ATP production. However, in certain cases uncoupling
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This note was uploaded on 02/21/2009 for the course BIOL 05400 taught by Professor Taagepera,s during the Spring '09 term at UC Irvine.

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lec10_mito b-post - Lecture #10 Mitochondria – Cellular...

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