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Lecture 13-Main topics

Lecture 13-Main topics - Lecture 13 Main topics Dry...

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Lecture 13 – Main topics Dry milk (milk powder) usually made from nonfat milk; water removed by spray-drying. Final water content ~3%. Milk Fortification: vitamins A and D added to low fat milk (During creaming, the removal of the lipids from milk leads to loss of fat-soluble vitamins). Milk fat ~ 60% saturated. Low content of trans-fats (bio-hydrogenation); see McGee p.38. Whipping cream (foam). see McGee p.31. Butter. Churning cream damages the fat globule membranes, and fat sticks together in large masses (clustering); see McGee p.33. Margarine and Ghee, Indian clarified butter ( see McGee p.37). Milk Proteins : (1) caseins ~80% proteins in cow’s milk. Form aggregates called micelles. (2) Whey proteins : water soluble, globular proteins. ( see McGee p.19). Lactic Acid Bacteria: Lactose Lactic Acid. Acidification of milk causes coagulation of the caseins (form a gel); besides changes in texture, there are changes in flavor. Acidification retards/prevents growth of many other microorganisms.
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