Sociological Theory of Migration - Sociological Theory of...

This preview shows page 1 out of 14 pages.

Unformatted text preview: Sociological Theory of Migration Explaining the Migration Process Professor Luis AlvarezLopez, Ph.D. The Equilibrium Theory Individual choice: This theory explain the migration process as a result of the individual rational choice. He or she choose to leave because a demand for workers existed in the most advanced society. After World War II the changes in the Capitalist system triggered an increase in the demand of workers from third world countries. 2 The Historical Structural Theory Macroeconomic Changes: This theory emphasize that macroeconomic changes beyond the control of the migrants triggered the conditions which force them to leave. Receiving societies are seems as society with need for a specific labor force at the bottom of the social ladder. 3 A Bifurcated Labor Market The changes in U.S. economic. The shifting from a manufacturing economic to the service economic (informational age) led to the postindustrial society. The restructuring of U.S. economic created a bifurcated labor market that required high skilled and low unskilled workers. 4 The Rigidity of the Labor Market The polarization of wages High skilled workers received excellent salaries, plus usually a great package of benefits: medical benefits, pension plan and sometime educational benefits. Low skilled workers received low salaries and the possibility of upward mobility are most of the time close. 5 Bifurcate Labor Market Human Capital Well paying jobs are associated to high human capital that exhibited specialized knowledge. Low paying jobs are associated with a poorly educated labor force, mostly ethnic minority and recent immigrants. Informal sector of the economic 6 Neoclassical Theory Imbalance between labor and demands According to this theory, labor migration occurred as a result of an imbalance between labor demands and wages in sending and receiving areas. At the individual level this theory assume that the individual will rationally calculate the gap between their present wages and the one they will be earning abroad. If the expected wages are higher the individual will move. 7 An Alternative Explanation The “new economics of migration” This theory focuses more in the household than in the individual as primary unit of analysis. Migration is an economic strategy used by peasants and workers to capitalize productive investment or to acquire expensive items, such as, a house or automobile, etc. 8 An Alternative Explanation The new economics of migration: According to Portes and Rimbaud three conditions need to be meet to allows a member of the family to immigrate: 1-A demand for migrant labor must exist. 2-The labor demand must be made known( recruiters or migrants social network). 3-Relative deprivation (Alba) represented a major factor in stimulating out-migration. 9 An Alternative Explanation New economics of migration Established migrant communities facilitate the settlement and labor market incorporation of the newcomers. Douglas Massey developed a “cumulative causation model” of the process in which labor migration become its own major determinant. 10 Immigrant and their types Toward a typology of migrants According to Portes and Rimbaut(chapter 2) it is possible to put forward a typology of the migrant workers: 1-Labor Migrants 2-Professional Migrants 3-Entreprenual Migrants 4-Refugees and asyless 11 Migrant Workers Entering to the USA: Cross the border on foots or with the help of a coyote Overstay a U.S. visa. Family reunification preference-1965 immigration law. Contract labors and H-2 workers (Laporte and Rumbaud, Chapter 2). 12 The Typology of Migrants A tool for to analyses the migration process: Following Portes and Rumbaut the typology help to analyze immigrant strategies for economic mobility, their effort to learn a new language and culture. Their decision to adopt the American citizenship and raise the children in USA. as American citizens. 13 Bibliography Alejandro Portes and Ruben G. Rumbaut. A Portrait Immigrant America. Third Edition. Berkeley: University of California Press,2006. Cornell Stephen/Hartmann Douglas. Ethnicity and Race. Making Identities in a Changing World. Second Edition. California: Pine Forge Press,2002. Richard T. Schaefer. Race and Ethnicity in the United States. Four edition. New Jersey, Pearson, Prentice Hall, 2007. 14 ...
View Full Document

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture