MT2 - Lecture 6 Main topics FOOD SAFETY (cont.)...

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Lecture 6 – Main topics FOOD SAFETY (cont.) Intoxications - Bacterial intoxications. Examples Botulism is a rare, but deadly disease. Caused by toxin produced by Clostridium botulinum bacteria. It is a neurotoxin (if untreated, can cause paralysis and respiratory failure), which can be destroyed by high temperatures. SEAFOOD POISONING Paralytic shellfish poisoning : caused by of saxitoxins produced by dinoflagellates. These can grow to large numbers leading to "red tides." Shellfish that have caused this disease include mussels, clams, scallops among others. In cases of severe poisoning, muscle paralysis and respiratory failure occur, may result in death. Saxitoxins are heat stable. Pufferfish Poisoning (Fugu Poisoning): Toxicity is due to Tetrodotoxin; there is no antidote available. Treatment is supportive, to maintain respiration. OTHERS Mushroom Poisoning. The mushroom Death cap produces amatoxins, the most hazardous of the mushroom toxins. A single mushroom can kill an adult. Protection of Food Supply FDA : All foods, except meat and poultry USDA: Meat and Poultry products ____________________ Smell, Taste & Flavor Olfactory receptors in the nasal passages can detect volatiles. Basic Tastes: Sweetness, Saltiness, Bitterness, Sourness, Umami Astringency Pungency (see McGee p. 270-272) ____________________ Food as energy source Energy-yielding nutrients Carbohydrates: 4 Calories/g Lipids: 9 Calories /g Proteins: 4 Calories/g
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Lecture 7 – Main topics CARBOHYDRATES Simple Sugars Monosaccharides, ex.: Glucose, Fructose, Galactose Disaccharides, ex.: Sucrose, Lactose, Maltose Glucose (also called dextrose), Fructose (also called levulose) SUCROSE = glucose + fructose LACTOSE = glucose + galactose MALTOSE = glucose + glucose Glycosidic bond: Linkage between 2 monosaccharide units Sweetness - Simple sugars differ in sweetness (taste intensity) - Sucrose is used as the reference sugar - RELATIVE SWEETNESS is a measure of how sweet a specific substance is in relation to sucrose. Sucrose 100 Lactose 20; Glucose 70; Fructose 120 Common Sweeteners Natural Sweeteners - Sugar (table sugar) - Honey - Maple Syrup - Corn Syrup - High Fructose Corn Syrup Sugar (table sugar); refined sugar > 99.9% Sucrose Disaccharide: Glucose-Fructose Only taste is sweetness Commercial sources: - sugarcane - sugar beets Molasses from sugar cane: Contain substances other than simple sugars. Various grades & darkness of color, such as “blackstrap molasses”. Brown sugar: Most is produced by the addition of molasses to refined white sugar - Has a more complex flavor than white sugar - It is hygroscopic (holds moisture and makes things stay moist) Sucrose Hydrolysis by invertase: Sucrose Glucose + Fructose Honey main sugars: glucose and fructose Maple syrup: 2/3 sugars and 1/3 water; main sugar is sucrose Alternative Sweeteners - Sugar alcohols: are reduced-calorie sweeteners. Nutritive Sweeteners - High Intensity Sweeteners, also called Nonnutritive, Artificial, or Synthetic Sweeteners
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This note was uploaded on 02/21/2009 for the course FST 10 taught by Professor Jack during the Fall '08 term at UC Davis.

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MT2 - Lecture 6 Main topics FOOD SAFETY (cont.)...

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