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American Culture

American Culture - American Culture North American Mound...

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American Culture 09/02/2009 14:00:00 North American Mound Builders Three distinct cultures o Early Woodland  Oldest of three cultures o Edina Hopewell Responsible for building serpent mounds Complex civilizations o Mississippian Culture Most important Also known as “mound building” culture New Ohio and Mississippi Rivers and their tributaries Thrived from 3000 B.C. to about A.D. 1700 Largest mount at Cahokia near modern St. Louis Urban Cultures of the Southwest Hookah in central Arizona between 300 B.C. and A.D. 300 o Sophisticated irrigation o Manufactured cotton cloth and distinctive red pottery
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o Declined around 1450, likely due to water shortages Anastasia in New Mexico and Colorado o  “Ancient Ones” o Cliff-dwelling people o Flourished for two centuries, then declined in last quarter of thirteenth century o Likely ancestors of Pueblo Indians Religious Dilemmas Eurocentric’s: Europeans thought that what Europe did was the right way of living Europeans had trouble understanding where the Natives came from since they weren’t mentioned  in the Bible Europeans accused Natives’ religion of being Satanic because they were less than civilized in their  opinion Natives were horrified by Christian practices Christians unprepared to deal with native societies o  Troubled by Indian religious practices o Branded Indians Satan worshippers Natives equally troubled by European practices
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o Horrified by European executions of suspected witches and other Europeans o Troubled by Communion rite in Christian churches o Widespread resistance to early Christianization efforts War as Cultural Misunderstanding Different conceptions of warfare o Europeans sought to slay as many of their enemies as possible o Indians fought to acquire live captives o Europeans disliked Indian torture and ritual sacrifice of captives o Indians appalled by European slaughter of women and children Indian societal organization differed markedly from European o Most Indian societies were matrilineal and had clearly defined social roles for men and  women Mother’s ancestry mattered for social standard Women personally owned most of the transferable property to pass it on to the  next generation or disperse it amongst others Women performed the agricultural labor Men were expected to hunt
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Viewed property as communal, not private Housing was communal Common in the Northeast Sometimes up to 100 feet with five families Limited individualism Leadership was given to someone who was respected and lead by  example o
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